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AS and A Level: Art & Design
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- Tate Michealangelo Caravaggio was born in 1571. He was an Italian artist, and his works were based around the themes of the physical, human state. He used dramatic lighting in his works to express the human emotion. At the time when he was working, there was a focus on religious art - to combat the threat of Protestantism in Spain. Cavavaggio employed the used of Chiascuro, and tenebrism, to make his naturalistic characters look dramatic, and focus on feelings and emotions. The realism of his figures added even more intensity to the emotions felt in the painting.
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Few marine creatures are as mysterious and intimidating as the jellyfish - at least for me. Even though one can easily recognise them, jellyfish are often misunderstood. Most bathers and beachcombers react with fear as I do upon encountering this invertebrate, but the truth is that most jellyfish, especially in Cyprus, are completely harmless. Jellyfish are barely animals. They do not have a brain, merely a nervous system which detects the basics, mainly light and odour. A jellyfish doesn't decide where it is going to swim to, it is just pushed along by the sea current, and that is why so many are found on beaches.
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Discuss arguments for and against the view that Conceptual Art should be regarded not simply as a break with previous conventions of visual art
For Fried, its theatricality has always represented a symptom of the decadence of literalist works of art, a decadence which establishes a staged relationship between object and beholder. The theatricality that so bothered Fried incorporated not only a regrettably mimetic space, but a mimetic time, too. Fried preferences a kind of Modernism that is more authentically abstract: insisting Modern artworks should be abstracted from pretence, from time and from a sense of object. The publication of Fried's essay brought to light to divisions within the Modernist tradition, and seemed to indicate that the heart of these divisions lay in the philosophical conflicts between Idealism and Materialism.
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As did many designers Ferdinand showed a great love for mechanical work at a very early age. He attended night school at the Imperial Technical School, during the day he always helped his dad out at the family's mechanical shop. Thanks to someone at his school referring him he managed to get a job in Vienna with the Bela Egger Electrical Company. During his five years at Bela Egger he managed to develop the electric hub motor. He later left the Bela Egger plant and went to Jakob Lohner.
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the subject, the hair light that provides sparkle to the subjects hair and the fill light that provides an even level of illumination across the entire scene. Place these studio lights in their correct positions and adjust them to their appropriate level of illumination by using incident and reflective light metering to achieve the desired affect. Step 2: Loading Film Remove the film roll from its box and place inside the back of the Rollei using appropriate method to load the film.
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Unfortunately, neither Wedgewood nor Davy is able to 'fix' the results permanently. 1812 Napoleon invades Russia in June. His armies enter Moscow but are forced to retreat in November as winter sets in. 1831- 1832 Michael Faraday conducts a series of experiments which demonstrate the principle of electromagnetic induction. 1826 Joseph Nic�phore Ni�pce creates a permanent image using a camera obscura and white bitumen, it took 8 hours to expose. 1839 Lois Daguerre's invention, which was bought by the French government, produced a one-of-a- kind picture on metal, the DAGUERREOTYPE.
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This appointment ensured the family a steadily increasing fortune, which allowed the male members of the Shen family the freedom to live their lives as scholar artists. His grandfather, father, and uncle all dedicated themselves to entertaining literati friends, to poetry, calligraphy, collecting, and painting. Growing up Shen Zhou prepared for a life at court. He was well learned and took the necessary official examinations. He enjoyed poetry, painting, and calligraphy. After his father's death, Shen Zhou left the court life deciding he would not proceed with any further tests, but would devote his life supporting his widowed mother.
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After the reformation in the 1500s when England became a protestant country, puritan antagonism to images and extravagance meant there were far fewer works of religious art3, relenting progress and development of British art. Although the first British museum/art gallery, The Ashmolean Museum, was opened in Oxford, June 16834, it was only in the eighteenth century when art became more general public friendly. Castle Howard5 in York was the first stately homes to open its doors to the general public, permitting them to enter and see the various paintings and objects on display inside.
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Wifredo Lam. In perhaps his most famous work of art, entitled The Jungle, Lam puts many powerful symbols on display. It is the undertaking of this essay to explore this renowned work of art, and to discover the intent of Lams symbols and subtlet
Wifredo's mother was a mulatto woman with some American Indian blood. This made the cultural heritage of Wifredo Lam a very diverse one. From early childhood, Lam was exposed to Santeria, a mixture of Catholic doctrine and African Yoruba beliefs. His own godmother was a priestess of the religion. Lam came from a middle class family and was sent to Havana at an early age to be educated. Shortly thereafter he traveled to Spain to continue his education in 1923, and remained there for fifteen years. While in Spain he fought on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War, and it was while in the hospital recovering from intestinal infection that he met the sculptor Manolo Hugue.
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Susan Sontag (on photography) has argued that Diane Arbus's photographs suggest "a world in which everybody is an alien, hopelessly isolated, immobilized in mechanical, crippled identities and relationships". Critically discuss this view of Arbus's work
Alien is a strong choice of word, it immediately conjures up the idea that none of us are alike. Because Arbus's work is solely visual, with little or no notes on her photographs it is visual examples of individuality that we look for. Arbus separates people with the camera; she puts them into a separate box away from everybody else. Even her portrait of two twin girls seems to draw a line between them (one is smiling, the other is not).
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"Taoism explains art and art explains Taoism. Art validates Taoism's identification of the fundamental principles of reality." (B. Willis). How far would you agree with this view?
To the Taoists, there is only one reality, and that is the Tao4. "Tao" or "the Way" is the core of Taoism, it is a force which flows through all life and is the first cause of everything.5 It can be nothing, yet it can also be everything; It is something that can only be experienced but not explained.6 Therefore, Tao is a spiritual principle, it is one that deals with the primary nature of things, with our own inner self, with the nature of being and the being of nature,7 with the very roots and firmaments of what it means to be alive and what life is.
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Techniques of the Selected Works of Two Comic Strip Authors (L'Autoroute du Soleil by Baru and Journal d'un Album - L'anne dernire by Phillipe Dupuy)
Bande Dessin�e: Techniques of the Selected Works of Two Comic Strip Authors (L'Autoroute du Soleil by Baru and Journal d'un Album - L'ann�e derni�re by Phillipe Dupuy) Background Bande Dessin�e (BD) or francophone "drawn strips" -a term preferred by BD authors and scholars as opposed to "comic strips", which they sustain would imply limitation of subject-matter to the comical (Wikipedia, 2005)- is also known as the Ninth Art or le neuvi�me art. Two important, award-winning exponents of the ninth art are Baru (born Herv� Barulea, 1947, France)
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ANDY WARHOL PERSONAL STUDY "If you want to know about Andy Warhol, just look at the surface of my paintings and films and me
Not only do I not have the movement to go by, but also they frequently change hairstyles and even hair colour. So I am stuck. Warhol obviously had the same problem: "and you know I never recognise anybody, but somehow I picked him out because he had that walk...." He met a lady and wondered why she looked familiar; he had just done her portrait. He failed to recognise the person he sat next to in church every week and also a girl opposite him at a dinner party, until after an hour when he was told her name.
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A French philosopher, Rousseau, said that people should get back to their natural state and live simply. The idea was thought to be the simple life of the poor, like shepherds or peasants. The farmhouse was also so fashionable because the King and Queen of France, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, who were leaders of a very fashionable society in France. They built a pretty cottage in the grounds of their palace at Versailles, French styles were very fashionable as well. They could of gone to exotic places like India or China. Romantic writers turned to the supernatural, as in the horror story by Mary Shelley "Frankenstein", written in 1818.
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This painting was inspired as a result of her job as a carpenter's assistant. The piece is full of gritty realism and is truthful in the sense that Eardley painted them through direct human contact. She slaps on the canvas a vision of how she sees these men which is in this case from behind the predominant figure. This viewpoint in reminiscent of Degas' 'keyhole' effect and possibly reflects her interest in the style and composition of this impressionistic artist.
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Symbolism pervades all aspects of Egyptian art from method to material.2 The seemingly regimented system of symbolism was a means of interpreting life from the Creation to the Afterlife, as well as the perpetual struggle between creative and destructive forces. For a more complete understanding of Egyptian art, it is helpful to consider the concepts which defined the culture and shaped their world. In the Egyptian cosmic view there existed before all else a state termed Nun, which can be likened to the primordial ocean, the infinite source of all creation.
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Since Roman times and even during the last half of the seventeenth Century, beauty was still looked upon as a transcendental, fixed model of an ideal. Artists might have considered themselves above their masters, but only in conjunction to the belief that they had a better grasp and wider knowledge in conveying this model. It was only during the late eighteenth Century and early nineteenth Century that a new "aesthetic modernity" arose, under the title "romanticism", bringing with it the first signs of a reaction against the laws of classism.
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How did Pop break down the barriers between 'high' and 'low' culture? Discuss with reference to specific practitioners and their work.
The main difference between pop art in America and Britain was that American art was done on a large scale whereas British art was done on a domestic scale, making it smaller. Fine art in British society at the time was seen as something of high culture, which was enjoyed by the upper classes, who studied, enjoyed and bought paintings and sculptures. Pop art by British artists was considered more 'arty' than pieces by their American counterparts and so for this reason was enjoyed by several different generations and classes, thus being a factor in breaking down the barriers between the cultures.
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Consider the interplay of identities-national, racial, gender or otherwise- in the works of at least one artist and one film director studied this semester.
(www.american.edu/ efindlay/HIST340/hist340.html). Given extensive poverty and the strength of class and racial oppression in the region, Latin American feminists were, from the very start, forced to confront the many conditions and factors that divided them from the rest of the world. Thus being a topic that has had great interest and the reason why I have chosen Frida Kahlo as the artist and Luisa Bemberg whom wrote Camila as the film director that I plan to base my essay on.
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The allocation in 1991 totaled $15,633,609, which is 9.3 percent of the total operating revenue for the year. The Metropolitan Museum of Art must rely on external sources of revenue, including interest on endowments, gifts, governmental appropriations, and grants, as well as internal sources of revenue from merchandising operations, auditorium rental, parking garage fees, restaurants, admissions, memberships, royalties, and fees to meet the enormous cost of providing programs and service, year-round, to millions of local, national, and international visitors. Target Customers The target customers of MET are people interested in arts, highly educated, urban with the age over 16 from New York City (NYC)
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The Protestant initiated new values, promoting the Protestant work ethics of hard working. They became more independent. Hence, they could practice and study new profound knowledge like mathematics and science more liberally. They do not have to afraid of the power of the church anymore. The Protestant Reformation in the Northern countries, the center of art in the Northern Europe shifted to particularly in Holland and it had a ripple effect throughout many artists. Previously, the artist used to be sponsored by the churches, but now they faced a real crisis as a result of this reform.
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I think colour, line, style and tone will be the main ways in which this is done, but how? Edvard Munch A gifted Norwegian painter and printmaker, Edvard Munch not only was his country's greatest artist, but also played a vital role in the development of German expressionism. Expressionism is artistic style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events arouse in him. Edvard Munch has created such a strong, tense and fearful atmosphere in his painting 'The Scream'. "'The Scream' is regarded as an icon of existential anguish."
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From 1516 to his death in 1519 he resided in France under the service of King Francis I spending his years at the Chateau de Cloux where he died on May 2, 1519. Da Vinci's grotesque Heads are numerous and certainly live up to their title. His uncompromising depiction of human oddities proved to be extremely popular in the Renaissance. They conformed to the growing taste for grotesquery in Italian novelle from tradition of Boccacio. The grotesque heads provided Da Vinci with a counterpart to the beautiful, and it is obvious he paid particular attention it to the great prominence of idiosyncratic features in the aged.
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The Purists interests lay with the aesthetic qualities of machines. Despite the Purists' theoretical interest in machinery, the still-life's that they painted depicted more conventional, technologically unsophisticated subjects, as in Le Corbusier's Composition with Guitar and Lantern (1920, Kunstmuseum, Basel). Although the Purists' ideas made an important contribution to contemporary artistic debate, it was in the field of architecture that they had their longest-lasting influence. Purism's concern with primary forms, the "machine aesthetic", and functionalism is most clearly expressed in Le Corbusier's buildings of the late 1920s, such as the uniform residences at the Pessac housing estate (1926), near Bordeaux.
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To what extent did the context and achievement of the Northern Renaissance differ to those of the Italian?
The contexts from which the Renaissances resided, were in some ways similar but were essentially very different. Both Renaissances had many types of patrons, often with individual patrons included in paintings and scenes celebrating the courts and cities. Both were seeing the extension of the classes from the aristocracy to a developing middle class. (Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini Wedding shows this). For both Renaissances, the arrival of the printing press in 1454 revolutionised the culture. Lorenzetti, an Italian artist's 'Palazzo Publico,' for example, was the first panoramic landscape painted in the western world and this became a popular way of praising the city.
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