• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

A Concise History of Business in Canada.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A Concise History of Business in Canada Through A Concise History of Business in Canada, Peter Baskerville and Graham Taylor successfully highlight three dimensions of Canadian business evolution in a clear and effective manner. By outlining transformations in social, political and business structures, the changing patterns of business organization in Canada are thoroughly analyzed. The particular character of Canadian business arrangements is also revealed through a description of the constraints imposed on private enterprises, as well as the attempt to maintain "national" interests against economic pressures. Finally, the international setting of Canadian business is explored through an analysis of Canada's place and role in the global business environment. The above three dimensions combine together to provide a comprehensive description of the nature of Canadian business. In order to trace the changing patterns of business organization within Canada, the authors explored the influence of significant structural changes in European commercial activities. Chapter two outlines the very early stages of European expansion, providing an in- depth look into forms of business organization that evolved in a halting state of transition from pre-modern to modern capitalist behaviour. In 17th century Europe, the notion of a joint-stock, incorporated company was widely received. This form of enterprise had great capital raising potential based on the purchasing of shares. The corporate business structure was believed to be best suited to the demands of a long-distance colonial-commercial enterprise. ...read more.

Middle

Post activity also became more and more routine and directed from the centre. Individual posts began to carry out specialized functions - some gathered fur, while others acted as shipment points. Labour relations changed dramatically as well. Company policy made it a point to have an equal proportion of mixed-blood, Irish and Scottish workers to weaken the possibility of collective resistance and increase the ease of managerial control. HBC also made use of new technology in the form of steamboats providing the speed and efficiency required to remain in a competitively commercial environment. The HBC's operational strategies were shared by many other smaller enterprises during this time, representing another major change in the pattern of business organization. Companies had now begun to centralize managerial control, divide workers along ethnic lines, and experiment with new transportation technologies in order to increase the effectiveness of business operations. This trend was a dramatic development from the early periods of French chartered companies and represented a significant improvement in the structure and strategies of enterprises in Canada. The second dimension outlined by Baskerville and Taylor builds from the first. The authors admit that many other parts of the capitalist world experienced similar patterns of change and stability in business organization. However, they also go on to describe some of the distinctive features of Canada which have produced a unique configuration of business arrangements. ...read more.

Conclusion

For example, chapter twenty indicates that increases in world trade and international direct investment encouraged the US to develop sales and production facilities abroad. By 1960, US investment in Canada exceeded $17 billion and that figure more than doubled over the next ten years. This meant the US dominated ownership in several of Canada's industries, resulting in severe consequences. For example, parent companies restricted branch plants to short production runs for the small domestic market, rendering them unable to achieve economies of scale. Similarly, multinationals did not equip their subsidiaries with research capabilities or state-of-the-art processes and products. Many of the brightest Canadians were also being induced into multinational organizations while Canadian entrepreneurship remained stagnant. These conditions characterize Canada's economic vulnerability on the international scene. The authors then describe how aspects of the first two dimensions interact with these conditions. For instance, as earlier chapters indicate, government intervention and political systems were used as a way of contesting foreign ownership and dominance. However, the globalization of financial, commercial, and industrial markets damaged these attempts. By the early 1980s, there was a resounding push for open markets, free enterprise, and the lessening role of state in economic affairs. Overall, Peter Baskerville and Graham Taylor successfully trace the evolution of Canadian business through three interconnected dimensions. These dimensions provide an insight into the progression of Canada's business activities throughout the years and ultimately explain how internal and external factors have contributed to the role of Canada in the area of business. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level ICT in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level ICT in Business essays

  1. Effective blending of Entrepreneurship and Professionalism.

    This may have been adequate in the 19th Century business in which there were a few men at the top who alone made decisions, with all the rest manual workers or low-level clerks. It is a dangerous misconception of today's business enterprise.

  2. Marketing principles

    For e.g. Fuji monitored what Kodak was doing which was offering high quality films at lower prices. As a result Fuji then entered the market and for them to attract customers especially from their main rival Kodak, by offering better a better service, a high quality film at lower prices

  1. In this coursework I need to produce a detailed business report on one medium-sized ...

    external sources to help managers ensure that the resources and their control are used as efficiently as possible in achieving business objectives. Decision making at senior management level has a major influence on the success or failure of the organisation.

  2. IBM Global Services: A Brief History

    stated the annual report. .In fact, breaking up the company would have been the end of everything IBM stood for. We made a big bet that customers needed a partner who could both create technologies and integrate them -- with each other, and with the customer.s business processes.

  1. The Use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) And International Technology Transfer by Non-Governmental ...

    This project goal was to allow countries in Southern Africa sufficient time to respond in the event food shortages or worse famine (Wright, 1994 in mather1997). FEWS used data from surveys climatologically information and predictions, crop prices and other information in an attempt to anticipate shortfalls in food production.

  2. The history behind the Boots.

    Customers mean business, business means sales, and sales mean profit. The next is related to this. It is to make a profit. To make a profit is very important, as with out this there is no way that the business will be able to expand and achieve other objectives such

  1. Thorpe Parks history.

    The incentive is generally either a Buy One get One Free mechanic or a discount of the full adult or child price. Thorpe Park runs promotions on it's own or in conjunction with the Tussauds Group, ie Tesco. Promotions are often run with a wide variety of retail and media

  2. The Different Theorists And Their Theories - FW Taylor.

    Yes No Business The name of the business is 'Midland Quilters Limited' (MQL). They do many things at MQL: - Quilting - Lamination of clothes - Embroidery The business is in an established market with many competitors. MQL is a fairly large company that has grown rapidly over recent years

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work