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# AS and A Level: Accounting & Financial Management

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Hire purchase, dividends proposed and trade credit will also fall within a businesses current liabilities. Businesses current assets are thing that they "have" or own. These can be general things such as stock, unfinished goods and raw materials for stock. These can be the hardest assets to turn into actual cash. The businesses money in the bank and investments are also current assets as well as any debtors the company has and prepayments which are deposits. Working Capital Management & the Problems When looking at working capital is important to analyse where cash is used in the day to day running of Thomas Cook; this can be known as a liquidity cycle.

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You then divide this figure by the net flow made every month. This will then give you the number of months that payback will be. Payback: 3years and 7months. Lee Ltd will use the payback method decide which investment will be more efficient for there business. Below is the Table to show the Net flow and cumulative. Year Net Flow Cumulative 0 (150,000) (150,000) 1 38,000 (112,000) 2 41,400 (70,600) 3 44,800 (25,800) 4 50,200 24,400 5 55,400 79,800 Total: 79,800 The table shows that within the 4th year the investment cost will be paid back.

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3. ## Profit and Loss Account

If it shows that my business is making a good amount of profit, then they are more likely to give me a loan than if I was making little profit or maybe even a loss. My profit and loss account contains figures gained from various documents I have created such as cash flow and my budget. Similar to me cash flow, my profit and loss if based on estimates therefore the figures can vary considerably. The sales turnover figures on my profit and loss account was gather by quantity sold multiplied by my selling price.

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4. ## Assignment 4: ethical issues. The community. P4 and M3

Primark can also benefit from the local community; for instance; by gaining the loyalty of the local community, Primark can easily retain their customers, the local community will also create an extra awareness of the business, meaning Primark will be able to attract extra customers because the local communities are recommending the business. By providing jobs for the local community, people will benefit as well as the government because the government receives taxes from the employees. Primark also consider the environmental issues, for example they have used 100% recycling bags in order to avoid any unethical trading.

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5. ## Accounting case study. I am writing this report to explain the contents thats on the profit and loss account and the purpose of each element. I am then going to write examples of different ratios for the business.

The opening stock that K Han had at the beginning of the year was �7700. Purchases This is different for different businesses, if it is a manufacturing business that you are talking about then this is the value of raw materials purchased, if you are talking about a service business, then it would be the cost of the things bought to sell to customers or to provide a service to the customers. K Han spent �37,500 on purchases. Purchase Returns This is receipts to the organisation from the suppliers when it returns items.

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6. ## Accounting Ratios. By using ratios Hills System ltd can monitor their businesss performance. The more they know about their Business performance, the easier it will be for them to make decisions about how to manage and grow their business

Accounting Ratios Page Accounting Ratios Liquidity Unit 2 Page Ratio analysis is a good way to evaluate the financial results of a business; in order to estimate its performance. They make it clear where your business stands, whether it's heading downhill or performing well. As a part showing where your business stands, they also help business accountants to figure out solutions on how boost the business up. Less closing stock This is the amount of stock the business has leftover before beginning a new year.

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7. ## Manual Bookeeping

Every three months she employs you to enter these into a set of accounting books. Section 1 - Preparation Of Invoices On 30 September, you are processing the previous quarter's transactions which include four invoices that you need to post. You are required to produce copies of these invoices for your records. The first has been completed for you. Complete the details on the remaining three invoices. In the pile of correspondence you find a statement of account from Bowles Supplies Ltd.

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These policies are usually in the form of employee manuals, which all employees are given. The people that may be needed to be employed in order to make the business run more efficiently and successful if it was to expand would include; * Manager (Sole Trader) - Managing the business and the overall businesses making and demanding orders and meeting customer needs and expectations * Managing Sales Director - To control the selling of the product(s) and also to ensure that the customers get a good quality product(s)

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9. ## report on domestic dogs

Domestic Dog Homes trading profit and loss account What is the Cost of Sales? If all items purchased during the year are sold then purchases is equal to the cost of sales. However, sometimes items purchased are not sold by the end of the year. These items are referred to as closing stocks. The cost of sales in these cases is not the total purchase figure. Instead it is equal to purchases less the items left unsold at the yearend i.e.: purchases less closing stock Sometimes stock existed at the beginning of the year because it remained unsold at the end of the previous year.

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10. ## M&S Finance

The key financial highlights from the year to March 2008 are: * Profit before taxation of �821 million, an increase of 24% on the previous year * Sales revenue of �9,022 million, an increase of 5.05% on the previous year * Total net assets of �1,964 million * Earnings per share up 7.9% to 43.6p * Retained earnings of �5,707.9 million On 2nd October this year, the company announced its results for the second quarter of this year (July, August, September).

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11. ## Analyse the impact of the economic environment of business performance.

Interest Rates The interest rate is the amount that individuals or businesses are given back on their investments. Impact on the option Interest rates need to be higher then the rate of inflation and provide a better return in any other investment. The interest rate needs to be high as possible to get a better rate of return. She will gain interest so the money will increase. If the �15,000 is invested in a building society then all of that �15,000 will have gone and you will not have a chance of investing the lump sum in any other way.

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12. ## Principles of accounting

Decrease in the owner's equity can be brought by drawings of goods and cash or other assets from the business for the owner's private purposes and net loss from the year's business activities. The changes in the capital structure of the owner's equity can be shown in the following manner: Sole trader's capital at the beginning of the account period. add Additional capital brought into the business from his private sources add Net profit Or deduct Net loss deduct Drawings equals Sole trader's capital at the end of the accounting period The information that pertains to the owner's equity is found in the capital account, which is in the general ledger.

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Also you can normally set a repayment plan to suit the needs of the business. Long Term When you sign a commercial mortgage contract you are committing to a period of 10 to 30 years. It's a big commitment. Simplified cash flow management Mortgage schedules are pre-set, making cash management more predictable. Lengthy application process Loan As with a mortgage, you can retain ownership, have a tax advantage and simplify cashflow management. Disadvantages rise depending on how much the company is wanting to borrow, more factors come into the process as detailed below with the more being borrowed, lengthening the repayment time etc.

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14. ## Sainsbury's Ratio Analysis

0.8% 5.0% Gross Profit Percentage 6.6% 6.8% Net Profit Percentage 0.6% 2.8% Liquidity Current Ratio 0.8:1 0.7:1 Acid test Ratio 0.7:1 0.5:1 Working Capital Management Stock Turn Over 14 days 13 days Debtors Collection Period ----- ----- Creditors Payment Period ------ ----- Report on Financial Performance of Sainsbury's in 2006 & 2007 (M3) Ratio Analysis can make accurate judgements of an organisation's performance. Ratio Analysis could also be useful to many stakeholders in the business. * It helps Owners to inform them when they are looking to make decisions about the future of the business.

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15. ## Factors which will affect business investment and Cameron Balloons Investment decisions

By this way business has more capital for investment projects and if businesses invest they can use this to offset the cost of investment against tax which reduces the businesses tax liability. Human relations - it is not unusual for investment projects to have an important impact on staff in an organisation. Investments aid business to grow which will mean that there will be new jobs created and future jobs can be secured. Corporate strategy - this is when the businesses views the decision that they take when making an investment and the decisions which will affect the businesses overall objectives.

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16. ## Identifying and evaluating two proposed projects for Camerons Balloons - discuss the suitability of investment appraisal methods which are used and analysed on estimated cash flows.

One of the two main cutters cut the fabric with laser and the other one uses a high powered water jet. Cameron Balloons are in the decision of investing in a new machine which will cost them between �200 and �125,000 which will depend on the machines sophistication. Cameron Balloons has to consider the choice between the two machines by how cheap one of them will be and it will reasonably improve the efficiency and the other one will be expensive but have more benefits to the business.

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17. ## `Accounting as a discipline has no theory`. Critically evaluate this statement and provide examples to illustrate your arguments.

Then I am going to discuss some of the main theories, which have been introduced to accounting in order to prove my arguments and to see whether accounting as a discipline has theory or no theory. Accounting has been around "at least since C16". Accounting as a profession has "been around for over 100 years". Accounting came around the time of other professions such as the medical profession and teachers, these professions were backed by "theoretical knowledge" which was used in decision making and to reduce uncertainty.

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18. ## Discussed in this paper is the need for change to place Lawrence Sports in a more financially strong position. Lawrence Sports will notice by making some changes to the way they currently do business

Lawrence Sports had many weaknesses defined in the simulation. Those weaknesses include the following: 1. Having low cash available 2. Being unable to meet the interest payments on long and short term debt 3. Contracts that are losing money. 4. Decrease in the needed production caused by company cutbacks. When credit is granted to a customer as with Lawrence Sports credit with Mayo and Gardner they are investing in a customer. The investment, as described in Chapter 28 of Short Term Finance, is an investment tied to the sale of a product or service.

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19. ## Accounting for Managerial Decision Making

These questions and thoughts, in the recognition processes should be followed when determining revenue and expense recognition. This sets in place the foundation for the revenue recognition principle. Revenue The FASB defines revenues as "inflows or other enhancements of assets of an entity or settlements of its liabilities (or a combination of both) from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the entity's ongoing major or central operations" (FASB, 1985, para. 78). Realization means that the product or service has been exchanged for cash, claims to cash, or an asset that is readily convertible to a known amount of cash or claims to cash.

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20. ## Parenting theory.

How corporate parenting add value to its businesses units? That occur when the parent's skills and resources fit well with the needs and opportunities of the businesses. If there is not a fit, the parent is likely destroy value. A parent that does not understand the critical success factors in a business is likely to destroy vale. To add value: ICM, Restructure, Knowledge, transfer skill and sharing activities. A parent without detailed knowledge of a business' market my not be aware of the opportunity to combine sales.

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21. ## Justify a proposed comprehensive and integrated nancial service package that is appropriate for the financial needs of two customers at different life stages.

In addition to his overdraft he also has a student loan of £13,000. Once Ifter starts work he will be required to pay off is student loan as he will be earning a salary more than £21,000. To work out how much Ifter has to pay I took his salary of £25,000 and subtracted £21,000 which gave me £4,000. I then found out 9% of this which is £360 which I then divided by 12 to get a monthly payment of £30.

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22. ## Explain the difference between capital income, revenue income, capital expenditure and revenue expenditure.

As a sole trader business Future fashion can keep all its profits to itself. Partnership A partnership is when two or more than two people set up a business. They are then known as partners. Each partner will have to contribute towards the business, they will have to contribute towards the capital income, therefore increasing the amount of money available. Partners all share making decisions for the business and the profit. Some partnerships any loans taken out are still taken out by using their own assets which is a huge risk.

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