• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Disaster management

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction All disaster managers must make decisions. Their decision involves a comparison between several alternatives and an evaluation of the outcome. The quality of the decisions managers make is the true measure of their performance. Each operational decision influences future actions, which in turn, require further decisions. Errors in decision-making, therefore, tend to be cumulative. Decision-making is the major responsibility of a disaster manager, regardless of his or her functional area or level in the organization. Some of these decisions may have a strong impact on the organization, while others will be important, but less crucial. The important point, however, is that all decisions will have some sort of effect. Variables in Decision-making In some cases, decisions are made where there are few alternatives and all the parameters of the decision can be clearly identified. However, many decisions require that a choice be made between different courses of action that may be affected by variables or events beyond a manager's control. For example, the field director of a refugee relief operation knows that the accuracy of new arrival forecasts will depend in large measure, upon political events in another country. Similarly, a supply officer of a relief agency is faced with the problem of how much and what types of supplies should be ordered in the immediate aftermath of an earthquake, without knowing the full extent of the disaster. ...read more.

Middle

Maximize the results that are the minimum possible under the circumstances; d) Minimize the maximum possible results; or e) Avoid or delay the decision. Types of Decisions There are three types of decisions in disaster management: 1) routine; 2) non-routine; and 3) technically guided. 1) Routine (or programmed) � If a problem or situation occurs often, a routine procedure usually is developed for solving it. Thus, decisions are routine if they are repetitive and a specific procedure has been developed for handling them. Examples would be purchasing relief supplies, handling personnel matters, and dealing with problems that were anticipated. Routine decisions normally are guided by policies, guidelines, or procedures. 2) Non-Routine (non-programmed) � When problems are broad, novel, and unanticipated, they require decisions that have not been covered in the planning by the organization. That is, they have not been routine. Consequently, there is no established procedure for handling the problem. 3) Technically-guided � In many cases, determination of which course of action to choose is guided by technical factors beyond the control of the manager. For example, flood victims often demand that relief agencies provide "flood-proof" houses. Unfortunately, flooding is a site problem, not a structural one. Therefore, a decision not to provide housing assistance on the same site would be guided by technical, not humanitarian considerations. ...read more.

Conclusion

In these organizations, both routine and non-routine decisions are made at all levels. Disasters demand that non-routine decisions be made at all levels, especially at field-level management. Field-level managers most often deal with non-routine decisions in emergencies. Thus, to improve the performance of relief operations, it is necessary to improve the non-routine decision-making capabilities of field-level managers. Two ways to improve decision-making under these circumstances are to: 1) Structure the decision-making process; 2) Provide a policy framework against which to measure choices. Steps in Decision-making All decisions require deliberate analysis. In order to make decisions under non-routine, emergency circumstances, the following steps should be taken: Step 1. Define the problem and the decision to be made. Clarify the problem and try to eliminate irrelevant or unnecessary issues. Step 2. Gather and organize all the information about the problem. Put all the information in a logical form and sequence. Step 3. Extract the relevant information. Step 4. Evaluate the information. Assess the quality and accuracy of the information and estimate the unknowns and variables that may influence the outcome of the decision. Step 5. Identify alternatives. Determine the alternatives and identify as many of the pros and cons and the possible outcomes of each. Step 6. Make the decision. Pick the best (most positive) alternative. Once a decision has been made, it should be adhered to. Hesitation or wavering fosters uncertainty and lack of confidence in the decision-maker, and can reduce the effectiveness of the decision. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level ICT in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level ICT in Business essays

  1. Business Aims and Objectives.

    So the Tesco tax department ensures that all tax are paid for. Administration and IT support The administration department provides important support services to other departments in the business.

  2. The Entourage System: A Feasibility Study

    This is not limited to system users, rather anyone who has an email address * An email account is set up when a user registers and at this point, the user is assigned an email address.

  1. Database: Feasibility Report.

    > Where information can be saved and stored easily by being programmed to save the data in a set amount of time limit or manually by using functions such as macro by clicking on the button, automatically saving the files in the database keeping it secure and backed up and always ready to access at a later stage.

  2. 3. Consider the management of resources

    having to close for a considerable amount of time due to essential refurbishment or it being dangerous to the customers and staff. This contingency plan would outline things such as - will a temporary store be opened for the customers still wanting to shop at Boots?

  1. International Management

    (Hodgetts/Luthans, 2003) 2 What type of organizational arrangement does the firm use currently? If it expanded operations into North America, what type of structure would you recommend it use? What other organizational changes would you recommend? Currently the firm is using subsidiaries; this is defined as a large company owning an amount of small companies.

  2. Budgeting and management planning and control.

    They will set out more accurately that what exactly needs to be accomplished. The objectives may vary from business to business but the performance and operational activities may include the following aspects: * Type of market the business is looking to operate * Portion of the market you are willing

  1. E-commerce and its effects in Ireland

    The following actions are required: Government Action * Update the body of legislation relating to the sale of goods and services to recognise goods and services offered, sold, or distributed electronically. The legislation should apportion liability for loss or damage between the provider of the goods or services, and any intermediaries or distributors.

  2. Knowledge management.

    Intellectual capital has a tremendous value in business organization. To manage it, companies now must start with knowledge management centers within their firms. The job of knowledge manager will be to facilitate knowledge sharing, identifying the knowledge sources within the firm such as knowledgeable people and making them responsible to

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work