• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Disaster management

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction All disaster managers must make decisions. Their decision involves a comparison between several alternatives and an evaluation of the outcome. The quality of the decisions managers make is the true measure of their performance. Each operational decision influences future actions, which in turn, require further decisions. Errors in decision-making, therefore, tend to be cumulative. Decision-making is the major responsibility of a disaster manager, regardless of his or her functional area or level in the organization. Some of these decisions may have a strong impact on the organization, while others will be important, but less crucial. The important point, however, is that all decisions will have some sort of effect. Variables in Decision-making In some cases, decisions are made where there are few alternatives and all the parameters of the decision can be clearly identified. However, many decisions require that a choice be made between different courses of action that may be affected by variables or events beyond a manager's control. For example, the field director of a refugee relief operation knows that the accuracy of new arrival forecasts will depend in large measure, upon political events in another country. Similarly, a supply officer of a relief agency is faced with the problem of how much and what types of supplies should be ordered in the immediate aftermath of an earthquake, without knowing the full extent of the disaster. ...read more.

Middle

Maximize the results that are the minimum possible under the circumstances; d) Minimize the maximum possible results; or e) Avoid or delay the decision. Types of Decisions There are three types of decisions in disaster management: 1) routine; 2) non-routine; and 3) technically guided. 1) Routine (or programmed) � If a problem or situation occurs often, a routine procedure usually is developed for solving it. Thus, decisions are routine if they are repetitive and a specific procedure has been developed for handling them. Examples would be purchasing relief supplies, handling personnel matters, and dealing with problems that were anticipated. Routine decisions normally are guided by policies, guidelines, or procedures. 2) Non-Routine (non-programmed) � When problems are broad, novel, and unanticipated, they require decisions that have not been covered in the planning by the organization. That is, they have not been routine. Consequently, there is no established procedure for handling the problem. 3) Technically-guided � In many cases, determination of which course of action to choose is guided by technical factors beyond the control of the manager. For example, flood victims often demand that relief agencies provide "flood-proof" houses. Unfortunately, flooding is a site problem, not a structural one. Therefore, a decision not to provide housing assistance on the same site would be guided by technical, not humanitarian considerations. ...read more.

Conclusion

In these organizations, both routine and non-routine decisions are made at all levels. Disasters demand that non-routine decisions be made at all levels, especially at field-level management. Field-level managers most often deal with non-routine decisions in emergencies. Thus, to improve the performance of relief operations, it is necessary to improve the non-routine decision-making capabilities of field-level managers. Two ways to improve decision-making under these circumstances are to: 1) Structure the decision-making process; 2) Provide a policy framework against which to measure choices. Steps in Decision-making All decisions require deliberate analysis. In order to make decisions under non-routine, emergency circumstances, the following steps should be taken: Step 1. Define the problem and the decision to be made. Clarify the problem and try to eliminate irrelevant or unnecessary issues. Step 2. Gather and organize all the information about the problem. Put all the information in a logical form and sequence. Step 3. Extract the relevant information. Step 4. Evaluate the information. Assess the quality and accuracy of the information and estimate the unknowns and variables that may influence the outcome of the decision. Step 5. Identify alternatives. Determine the alternatives and identify as many of the pros and cons and the possible outcomes of each. Step 6. Make the decision. Pick the best (most positive) alternative. Once a decision has been made, it should be adhered to. Hesitation or wavering fosters uncertainty and lack of confidence in the decision-maker, and can reduce the effectiveness of the decision. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level ICT in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level ICT in Business essays

  1. Business Aims and Objectives.

    Tesco's marketing strategy has been based around a database strategy driving a huge direct marketing campaign. There customer base (as recorded by the details provided by the hugely successful ClubCard Scheme) almost exactly mirrors the demographic make-up of the UK.

  2. Database: Feasibility Report.

    Hardware and Software requirements for the clients Software needed To run software, which you could use or create your own database (e.g. Microsoft Access 2000) you need the following operating systems: > The recommended system is Windows 2000 Professional > Microsoft Windows 98 > Windows 98 Second Edition > Windows

  1. Apple Incorporation - Case Analysis

    Selling, general, and administrative costs are higher than competitors Expansion into the retail 'bricks and click' world has increased Apple's costs. Marketing fees for advertising its unique operating system and new equipment again affects the bottom line, even though they are necessary expenditures.

  2. 3. Consider the management of resources

    how many people visit the site > See how many people from this that then go on to apply for the job > Able to breakdown the applicants more efficiently and accurately for example - gender, sex, race. This then helps conform to equal opportunities legislation Another way that a business may test potential employees is through an actual test.

  1. Budgeting and management planning and control.

    In this regard they need to: Source: Mclaney, E.J. Accounting:an introduction/Eddie McLaney & Peter Atrill-2nd ed, Prentice Hall The Budget Setting Process: This is such a crucial part for running an enterprise or business successfully and for other companies that have a tendency to approach in a quite methodical and formal way.

  2. International Management

    use is global area division, since the company has a narrow product line of paper products. In a global area division, operations of the company are organized based on geographic area instead of product lines. This will "allow division managers to cater to the taste of the local market and

  1. The Entourage System: A Feasibility Study

    This must be able to handle pictures, text details and other types of data the castting director and agents require. It should be possible for the users to upload information themselves. * Content being saved for further reference should be checked for updates in order to ensure consistency of representation.

  2. Consolidated Purchasing In ABB India's Integrated Supply management organization

    120 years of technological leadership The history of ABB goes back to the late nineteenth century, and is a long and illustrious record of innovation and technological leadership in many industries. Having helped countries all over the world to build, develop and maintain their infrastructures, ABB has in recent years

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work