• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss the importance of ethical considerations when carrying out research on humans.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Discuss the importance of ethical considerations when carrying out research on humans. Ethical considerations are an important part of research. In the past, experiments have been carried that were considered to be unethical, for example a famous experiment of Kraft Ebbing in 1897. In his early work, Krafft-Ebing inoculated general paresis patients with syphilis (Pennington 2002 p.497). Since they did not contract the disease, he concluded that they must have had it previously, developing immunity. In this fashion, Krafft-Ebing demonstrated the link between syphilis and general paresis. These experiments harmed participants. Today, guidelines that outline ethical considerations that need to be observed exist. The four main areas for discussion in ethical considerations are: consent, deception, debriefing and society vs. the individual. Ethics are defined as the system of moral values or the way that right is distinguished from wrong. The British Psychological Society (Cardwell 1996 p.258) sets out ethical considerations that include the need to protect participants from harm and the need to gain informed consent from the participants. Anonymity must also be protected and the option to withdraw from the experiment must be allowed throughout. If ethical considerations are followed it adds credibility to the research carried out. ...read more.

Middle

Participants were told that the study would look at the relationship of punishment in learning, and that one person would be the teacher, and the other would be the learner (a confederate), and that these roles would be determined by a random drawing. The learner was then strapped into a chair, and electrodes are attached to their arm. It was explained to both the teacher and the learner that the electrodes were attached to an electric shock generator, and that shocks would serve as punishment for incorrect answers. The experimenter then states that the shocks will be painful, but that they will not cause any permanent tissue damage. The teacher and learner were then divided into separate rooms. The learners were in fact stooges and did not feel any pain. This was the main deception that was taking place. This experiment was seen to be unethical because of the many deceptions that took place. The participants were lied to from the beginning, concerning the objectives of the experiment and the pain they were inflicting. Then the researchers used their position of authority to oppress the participants into an action that they would not have normally done. ...read more.

Conclusion

However the social responsibility that Bandura had to illustrate was the undeniable fact that young children not only observe but retain violent behaviour that they see. Psychologists such as Milgrim have an ethical responsibility to society as a whole. It could be argued that he would not be fulfilling that responsibility if he did not carry out such research as he did. Elliot Aronson (1995) suggests that psychologists face a dilemma when this wider responsibility to society conflicts with the obligations to individuals. This issue is greater the more important the issue is to society. The more important the study and the more potential benefit the study has to society the more likely it is that the participants involved will experience discomfort. It is apparent that as time has gone on ethical considerations have become more important to researchers. The considerations allow for research to gain in credibility and robustness when standing up to critics. The guidelines set out by The British Psychological Society have meant that researchers can easily gain access to the considerations that they need to adhere to in order to conduct ethical research. The importance that these guidelines have for research is evidenced in the protection of participants and the credibility of modern research. Without the ethics behind research it would be hard to gain participant consent for research to be carried out. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Marketing & Research section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Marketing & Research essays

  1. Marketing - what it is and why it is importance. Analysis of my marketing ...

    is on sale during the store visit; * Whether any brand had preferential display space; * The impact of income and/or family size on purchase patterns; and * Whether a coupon was used for the purchase and, if so, its value.

  2. Mcdonalds. For this unit I will need to produce a portfolio of work investigating ...

    The McDonalds logo is so popular that if doing a quiz a question comes up asking what the McDonalds logo is then at lest 98% of the answers will be right. This is how common this logo is. Even people that don't like McDonalds and those people that cannot eat

  1. For this assignment I have been asked to produce a new marketing strategy for ...

    Strategic factors other than relative market share may affect profit margins. ? The growth-share matrix is based on the assumption that high rates of growth use large cash resources and that maturity of the life cycle brings about the expected profit returns.

  2. Marketing Research

    Collecting competitor ads 7) Reading articles on the concerned industry E) Some companies have established an internal MI center to collect and circulate marketing intelligence. The staff scans major publications, abstracts relevant news and disseminates relevant news to the marketing dept. Marketing Research (MR): This is the third component of MIS.

  1. Applied Business Studies

    In different parts of the UK, the shops are different. For example, in Chester, there are many high street clothes shops, like Primark and New Look, but in places like Blackpool, there are also shops there, but the difference is that there's a pleasure beach, and that there are many arcades.

  2. Marketing Research

    Coca Cola is a well-known soft drinks company; they follow some principles of marketing when developing their own market research. These include the following: understanding consumer needs as the market constantly keeps changing; therefore it is essential that Coca Cola keeps looking for new opportunities.

  1. Market research

    There are several advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires. Advantages * Questionnaires are very cheap compared to face to face interviews. * Questionnaires are easy to analyse * Questionnaires are familiar to most people. Nearly everyone has had some experience completing questionnaires and they generally do not make people uneasy * Questionnaires reduce bias, so people filling in questionnaires

  2. Marketing comparision of Sainsburys and the British Heart Foundation

    Sainsbury?s use to be the market leader up in till 1995, when Tesco overtook. Those currently Sainsbury?s is the Market leader in certain parts of the company. For example Sainsbury?s is the biggest fair trade retailer making them the market leader for fair trade products.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work