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Due to the rapid development of economics and the inevitable tendency of globalization, more and more business negotiation happens among different people from different countries.

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Introduction

Introduction Due to the rapid development of economics and the inevitable tendency of globalization, more and more business negotiation happens among different people from different countries. As far as we know, negotiation plays a vital role in business, so there is no exception for international business. According to Holt (1998) that negotiation is a comprehensive concept that suggests a joint effort by two or more parties to find mutually acceptable response to a problem, opportunity or conflict. It can include barging but the aim should be to create a ' win-win' situation. According to Adjer (2002) there are three strategies: Traditional Approach, Principled Approach and [Cultural] Synergistic approach. Among these approaches, the synergistic approach emphasis on the importance of culture,in the circumstance of the international negotiation which will face a lot of problems about culture, so I would like to choose the third approach: A cultural Synergistic Approach. In this approach, the significance of culture can be seen almost in the every step of the whole process. The main contents of this approach are shown as follows: 1.Preparation: Cross-cultural training Define interests 2.Relationship Building: Separate the people from the problem Adjust to their style and pace 3.Information Exchange: Exchange task- and participant-related information Clarify interests and customary approaches 4.Inventing Options for Mutual Gain (appropriate to Both Cultures): Insets on using criteria appropriate to both cultures Never yield to pressure 5.Agreement: Translate and back-translate agreement If necessary, renegotiate International negotiation is a bridge to link international planning and implementation. ...read more.

Middle

As mentioned in the list, it seems that the Americans like to claim their position as clear as possible at the very early stage of negotiation. In contrast, we Chinese people eager to observe opponent's situation at first and expose our position according to the situation of other side's and the process of negotiation itself. Due to the different customers, I would like to pay more attention to listen to their position. My position should also be clearly defined after knowing opponent's standpoint. Moreover, U.S. negotiators typically have authority to bind their party to an agreement, so if the right deal is struck the matter can be resolved quickly. This is why deadlines are so important to Americans. They have come to do business, and they want to get things resolved immediately. (Hodgetts, R. M. & Luthans, F. 1991) Profile of Swedish negotiator 1. Very quiet and thoughtful 2. Punctual (concerned with time) 3. Extremely polite 4. Straightforward (they get straight down to business) 5. Eager to be productive and efficient 6. Careful, plodding style 7. Down-to-earth and overcautious 8. Rather flexile 9. Able to and quite good at holding back emotions and feelings 10. Slow at reacting to new (unexpected) proposals 11. Informal and familiar 12. Confident 13. Perfectionist 14. Afraid of confrontations 15. Very private Source: Deresky, H. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the process of negotiation, the Japanese may not tell you directly what they want so we have to guess the real meaning from the surface of words and actions. Furthermore, "Saving face" is an important concept to understand. In Japanese business culture, a person's reputation and social standing rests on this concept. When a person loses his or her composure or otherwise causes embarrassment, even unintentionally ("losing face"), this can be disastrous for business negotiations. From this point of view, it is very near Chinese culture, which is also emphasis on the face saving. During a negotiation, we should realize that the appropriate choice of words and the indirect implication give both sides of the negotiators a step. Sometimes, it is even necessary to pretend that your Japanese colleague understood you. Because in Japanese business protocol, these "face-saving" measures are essential for maintaining cordial relations. Conclusion As I mentioned at the beginning of this article, the ultimate aim of international negotiation is to reach a " win-win" result. Every person involves in the negotiation tries his best effort to get more and more closer to the final success. As a manager of Chinese based multinationals, the fully understanding of culture that is playing an important role throughout the whole process of negotiation can not be ignored. As Luthans and Hodgetts (1991) says "in order to negotiate effectively in the international arena, it is necessary to understand how cultural differences between the parties affect the process. ...read more.

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