• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain the functions of the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS) (including ANS and the endocr5ine system) and outline their role in behaviour patterns.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

EXPLAIN THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS), PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) (INCLUSING ANS AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM) AND OUTLINE THEIR ROLE IN BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS. The function of the nervous system is to carry messages rapidly from one part of the body to another. It can be divided into the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). One of the main functions of the CNS is the processing of sensory information. Sensory information is received through the specialised sense organs 'the information then travels to the central nervous system in order to be analysed, and in order for action to be based on its implications.' (Hayes, 1994, pg345). The CNS is comprised of the brain and the spinal cord, which consists of grey and white matter; grey matter forms the outside, with white matter inside. Grey matter contains nerve cells whilst the white matter contains nerve fibres. The brain has four major functions: * It receives information from the sense organs. * It controls muscle movements. * It is the centre of the autonomic nervous system. * It controls consciousness, intelligence, reasoning, memory, personality, and 'knowing who we are.' ...read more.

Middle

The physical state of the membrane lipids is made more fluid through the alcohol dissolving in the membrane. This in turn leads to a reduction in neuronal activity and is what causes the debilitating effects on the sensory and motor functions. Alcohol also affects the neurotransmitter systems, particularly norepinephrine, dopamine and seratonin. (biogenic amines) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which are related to altering mood and anxiety reduction. 'Alcohol enhances the inhibitory actions of GABA, which is the most important inhibitory transmitter in the brain.' (Nestoros, 1980; Suzdak, Schwartz, Akolnick, and Paul, 1986; cited by Rosenhan & Seligman, 1995, pg526). 'Alcohol acts at the same GABA receptor complex as the benzodiazepine anti-anxiety drugs (Librium, Valium, etc.) and it is believed that this action is responsible for the anxiety-relieving properties of alcohol (Lister and Durcan, 1989; Koob, Mendelson, Schafer, Wall, Britton and Bloom, 1989; cited by (Rosenhan & Seligman, 1995, pg526). Alcohol is a widely used, socially acceptable drug in the majority of western cultures, yet it is rarely seen as a drug that so powerfully impacts our biological systems causing the widely recognised changes in our behaviour. Electrical and neuro-chemical activity in the brain is also related to behaviour. ...read more.

Conclusion

These chemicals 'combine with synaptic receptors; measuring receptor activity can tell something about neurotransmitter function in the brain. An example would be studies of changes in dopamine and serotonin receptor numbers in schizophrenia.' (Cardwell et al, 2000, pg297). MRI scanning involves placing the head in a powerful magnetic field where successions of electro-magnetic waves are passed through the brain. The neurones in the brain then produce electo-magnetic waves themselves, which are recorded by computer as a three-dimensional picture. The advantage of this procedure over the CAT scan is that not only is the level detail better, but the patient is not exposed to x-rays. As technology develops so new techniques arise. Some recent scanning technology is the magnetoenecephalography (MEG) which records the tiny magnetic fields produced by active neurones, single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) which tracks blood flow through the brain and superconducting quantum imaging/interference device (SQUID) which also detects tiny changes in magnetic fields. In conclusion it is clear from this brief overview that the human body is a complex system whereby physiological and psychological intertwine to produce efficient functioning. As technology develops so we can gain insight into the more intricate functioning of the brain, but it is important to remember that although this can shed light on some aspects of behaviour, the complexities of the mind and social interplay will also play a part. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level ICT in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level ICT in Business essays

  1. AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Dendrites receive information from another cell and transmit the message to the cell body. The cell body contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles typical of eukaryotic cells. The axon conducts messages away from the cell body. Neurons are highly specialized cells that generate and transmit bioelectric impulses from one

  2. The purpose of this document is to define the Context of Cain Motors Information ...

    Change Benefits: Benefits include increased revenue. Workflow efficiency removing double bookings. Improve staff communication; be able to access information, which is presented clearly and legibly. Change Costs: Virtual web hosting will incur a continued leasing cost Housing a web site has many long term running costs to be considered such

  1. I will be comparing the difference between types of ownership and the industrial sector ...

    The first company I will be looking at is BMW that is a limited company that manufactures and sells their own vehicles and parts. The other company is the Co-op that is a co-operative business that operates in the retail sector.

  2. How the Nervous system the endocrine system and the brain interact in the body.

    The endocrine system is a system that gives off hormones to facilitate growth, reproduction and metabolism in the bloodstream. A major example is the pineal gland which includes; melatonin, the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the thymus and the adrenal gland.

  1. Report on Budgetary Control System

    ignoring important maintenance of machinery which is a limiting factor in production. This could have an effect upon sales and revenue throughout Trescothick Ltd because if the maintenance of important machinery is being overlooked, then the manufacturing of the industrial machinery produced shall be delayed or even disregarded completely.

  2. The Use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) And International Technology Transfer by Non-Governmental ...

    These first generation NSDI have differences in terms of geography, levels of economic development and systems of government. DRIVING FORCES TO ESTABLISHMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURES Masser (1999) argues that two basic themes underlie these national spatial data infrastructures which are: growing importance of geographical information in the coming age of digital

  1. Management information system (MIS).

    ensure the proper operation of a firm meanwhile a new manager will opt for informal commitments and networks to establish goals [ rather than formal planning] , a flexible arrangement of teams and individuals working in tasks forces, a customer orientation to achieve coordination among employees an appeals to professionalism and knowledge to ensure proper operation of the firm.

  2. Describe the functions and structural design of the cerebrum.

    The commissural tracts are connections between each of the cerebral hemisphere with the other. They consist of the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, and the posterior commissure. The corpus callusum is the largest of the three, and is composed of dense white matter that transversely connects the two hemispheres.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work