• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14

Find out why these past few years, demand for public transport is gradually decreasing.

Extracts from this document...


Economic Coursework This project I am assigned to find out why these past few years, demand for public transport is gradually decreasing. There are many reasons why this happens. Demand for cars could have been in an increase over the past few years as this affects the demand for public transport, as it is a substitute good. This could also measure the elasticity of bus fare, how responsive it can be. So if there were more substitutes for public transport, it will mean it are elastics good. There are many other things which may cause congestion to be an economic problem. What is congestion charging? Congestion charging is a way of ensuring that those using valuable and congested road space make a financial contribution. It encourages the use of other modes of transport and is also intended to ensure that, for those who have to use the roads; journey times are quicker and more reliable. The London scheme requires drivers to pay �5 per day if they wish to continue driving in central London during the scheme's hours of operation. Why is it an economic problem? There are many reasons why congestion is an economic problem as congestion comes about when the actual journey times taken by transport users are in excess of their normal expectations. Congestion can have many consequences other than increased journey time; the stress caused by it can be the cause of road rage, as well as the increase in harmful emissions having detrimental effects to the areas buildings, air quality and quality of life of all involved. Congestion is simply caused by too many cars with little road space. The demand for public transport has far exceeded the supply. The increase in incomes and relative fall in the price for cars has led to the higher number of cars on the road. There are many reasons why congestion is an economic problem, but to solve the problem, I will have to look at congestion very closely by using ...read more.


more consumers -there is more credit available. The demand curve will shift to the left, from d1 to d3, and see the quantity demand fall, from q1 to q3 if the opposite of the above occurs. For example, if advertisement on global warming and pollution is advertised, this will encourage consumers to use fewer buses but to walk to work or ride a bike. If substitute goods falls, such as a car. Most consumers would buy a car, leaving less or fewer consumer demanding for buses. Supply- According to the law of supply a higher quantity will be supplied at higher prices, all other things unchanged. This is because the higher prices will encourage firms to supply more. This relationship between price and quantity supplied can be shown on a supply curve. So if bus fares were high, more bus company would agree or willing to supply more buses for the consumers, so they are able to make more money. If more bus company are willing to supply more buses, it could also mean less congested roads, so more consumers are encouraged to use buses than cars. However, price is not the only factor affecting supply. Other factors include the prices of factors of production- land=rent, labour=wages, capital=interest. Technology could affect the amount supplied, improvement in technology will mean production is cheaper and faster, so workers are less needed and less wages paid. The supply curve will shift to the right, from s1 to s2, and see the quantity supplied increase, from q1 to q2 if: -the increase in the number of suppliers -there is an improvement in technology -there is a fall in the prices of factors of production. The supply curve will shift to the opposite side, if the opposite of the above occurs. Market Equilibrium- this is very important as it solves the economic problem of congestion. If bus fares are set to a good price or other public transport such as train and the tube. ...read more.


Overall I believe it could have been more effective and that I could have got more out of it. The main weakness of my research method was that, I couldn't get enough details from the people I was questioning. This could due to the fact that my questionnaire wasn't effective enough. I could have asked more useful questions which was related to the coursework. How cheaper public transport solve the problem of congestion. The strong point of my research was that, I was able to find bout the substitutes for buses, how effective it would have been if train tickets costed less than bus fares. That more consumers will travel on train than buses. I was able to find this from the research. If I was to carry out this research again, to improve it, I will attempt to make a questionnaire which is more relevant to the coursework. Asking them for their own opinions on the buses, rather giving them a list to choose from. As this could give me a wider range of answer to help me to solve the congestion problem in London. Other methods that could be used to solve the congestion problem apart from cheaper public transport could be the cost for off-peak and peak time costs. For trains nows, they have a peak time cost and off peak cost. This is when in the morning, trains are very busy and so tickets cost more during the morining rush hours. But after 9:30am it is then the off-peak time when most people has gone to work, and less people are taking the train which is when the ticket price are lower. I believe that, introducing this system to buses, could solve the cogestion in roads. Rather than something like congestion charging, when driving in central London, you would be made to pay a fee of �5 everyday. Which the government believes that it will encourage more people to use public transport than using their own car. There are many ways other than this method shown above. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Marketing & Research section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Marketing & Research essays

  1. Distinguish between "a change in demand" and "a change in quantity demanded.

    What are the demand and supply factors that affect the market equilibrium price of mobile phones? Demand factors include consumers' taste, prices of substitutes, prices of complements, change in real income of consumers, expectations of the consumers and availability of credit.

  2. Factors affecting Supply and Demand.

    (John Sloman, 1997, Economic Third Edition) There is another example exist in British society can prove the price of good (or service) and other prices of goods (or service) can influence the demand curve. In the First world, especially in British labour is relatively expensive, such as nurse and housekeeper.

  1. Business Studies Company Profile

    These appear as normal advertisments, in newspapers, but often have tongue in cheek humour involved, usually about the latest technology that BMW have taken advantage of, like "The new in-cabin Klimatabeiter Climate Control System (KCCS), which - supposedly - can recreate any of the world's 23 registered climates inside your BMW and comes as standard in BMW 7 Series models.

  2. Marketing Research

    Chapter 4 : Developing the research plan 4.1 Data Source 4.2 Research Approaches The previous chapter threw some light on the steps in a marketing research process. This chapter will discuss the stage 3 of the marketing research process with focus on stage 1 and stage 2 i.e data source and Research Approach in detail.

  1. We will look to find out more about marketing techniques and decisions made by ...

    This is evident throughout our products as each product has different ways in which they can be consumed. What future marketing plans do you have? For the future we would like to continue building the Kelloggs brand as a health conscious product aimed at helping people look after their bodies

  2. unit 2 recruitment in the work place

    By Shortlisting candidates, the organisation can find out which candidates are the best for the job and which candidates will be refused for the post. After when a selection of candidates is made, the organisation sends of a letter telling them to come for an interview.

  1. I am going to be writing about the concepts of marketing distinctiveness of the ...

    Other methods are also available so for example if you go on a website, the first thing you see is a lot of advertisements. The advertiser pays the website an amount to advertise their product or service on their website.

  2. Mcdonalds. For this unit I will need to produce a portfolio of work investigating ...

    Customers expect to be given the best in everything e.g. the food quality, the service they receive and the environemnt in which they eat. If McDonalds fail to provide all these benefits to customers then they may loose out on a lot of customers as well as a lot of profit.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work