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Job analysis

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Introduction

JOB ANALYSIS There are several types of jobs: traditional, evolving, flexible, idiosyncratic, team-based, and telework. These types of jobs may be analyzed and described in terms of specific job requirement, competency requirements and job rewards. Job analysis is the general process of studying and describing these requirements and rewards. Besides, separate approaches are needed for job requirements, competency requirements, and job rewards. TYPES OF JOBS * Jobs are explicitly designed and aligned in ways that enhance the production of the organization's goods and services. * Job analysis must be considered within the broader framework of the design of jobs, for through their design jobs acquire their requirements and rewards in the first place. * Several different types of jobs may be designed by the organization. 1. Traditional * The traditional way of designing a job is to identify and define its elements and tasks precisely, and then incorporate them into a job description. * This includes virtually all tasks associated with the job, and from it a fairly inclusive list of KSAOs will flow. * Each job also has its own set of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. * The job design is marked by formal organization charts, clear and precise job description and specifications, and well-defined relationships between jobs in terms of mobility (promotion and transfer) paths. * Traditional jobs are very static, with little or no change occurring in tasks or KSAOs 2. Evolving * Traditionally designed and administered jobs may gradually change or evolve over time, yielding an evolving job * Changes are not radical, are usually intentional, and often due to technological and workload changes, e.g. secretary 3. Flexible * Flexible jobs have frequently changing task and KSAO requirements * Sometimes changes are initiated by the job incumbent who constantly adds and drops (or passes off) new assignments or projects in order to work toward moving targets of opportunity, e.g. ...read more.

Middle

usually include the following: job family, job title, job summary, task statements and dimensions, importance indicators, job context indicators, and date job analysis conducted b A job specification should usually include job family, job title, job summary, KSAOs (separate section each), importance indicators, and date conducted F Collecting Job Requirements Information * Job analysis involves not only consideration of the types of information (tasks, KSAOs, and job context) to be collected but also the methods, sources, and processes to be used for such collection. I. Methods * Prior Information a For any job, there is usually some prior information available about it that could and should be consulted. Indeed, this information should routinely be searched for and used as a starting point for a job analysis. b There are many possible organizational sources of job information available, including current job description and specifications, job-specific policies and procedures, training manuals, and performance appraisals. c Externally, job information may be available from other employers, as well as trade and professional associations. * Also, job information is available commercially on the Web. * Observation a Simply observing job incumbents performing the job is obviously as excellent way to learn about tasks, KSAOs, and context b It provides a thoroughness and richness of information unmatched by any other method. * It is also the most direct form of gathering information because it does not rely on intermediary information sources * Interviews a Interviewing job incumbents and others, such as their managers b The interviewee has vast source of information about the job c The interview format allows the interviewer to explain the purpose of the job analysis, how the results will be used, thus enhancing likely acceptance of the process by the interviewees * Task Questionnaire a A typical task questionnaire contains a lengthy list of task statements that cut across many different job titles and is administered to incumbents in these job titles b For each task statement, the respondent is asked to indicate: * Whether or ...read more.

Conclusion

* Competency requirements may extend beyond job specific ones to those of multiple jobs, general job categories, or the entire organization. These competencies are much more general or generic KSAOs, such as "technical expertise" or "adaptability". * A competency model is a combination of the several competencies deemed necessary for a particular job or role. * This is a very new approach to identifying job requirements. * This form of job analysis seeks to identify general competencies (KSAOs) necessary for all jobs because the competencies support the organization's mission and goals. Within work units, other general competencies (job spanning KSAOs) may also be established that cut across multiple jobs. Potential techniques and processes for collecting competency information are suggested. * Usage of competencies and competency models in staffing reflects a desire to: o Connote job requirements in ways that extend beyond the specific job itself o Describe and measure the organization's workforce in more general, competency terms o Design and implement staffing programs focused around competencies (rather than just specific jobs) as a way of increasing staff flexibility in job assignments. 3. Job Rewards Job Analysis * Broadly speaking, every job has an array of associated rewards. Some of these rewards are external to the job itself and the tasks that comprise the job, e.g. pay, benefits, promotion opportunities. These are extrinsic rewards * Other rewards are internal to the job itself. They are usually a direct outgrowth of the tasks themselves and the feelings that an employee experiences while performing and completing the tasks, e.g. feelings of autonomy, utilization of skills, and achievement of tasks and related goals . * The job rewards matrix is suggested for use in a job rewards job analysis. The matrix indicates a need to identify the extrinsic and intrinsic rewards offered by the job. * It also requires indication of the rewards' amounts, differences among employees, and stability. * Instruments and processes for collecting the necessary information are still in their infancy, as is the formal incorporation and use of the information in staffing activities. 1 ...read more.

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