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  Hospitality in business.

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HOSPITALITY OPERATIONS COURSEWORK CODE 5 Students Name: Boiana Vodenitcharova Students Number: 233325 Group: H2 Course: Hospitality Operations Institution: International University, Sofia Students Signature: Words: 2 635 Contents Page: 1. How can we employ the "Just in Time" purchasing concept? What is its strength? .................................................. page 1 2. There are three types of maintenance, which is the most important one and why? ............................................. page 2 3. The Hotel's heating, cooling, ventilation system (HVAC) is a primary energy consumer. How can we measurably reduce the system's needs? .......................................... page 3 4. Describe the methods used in booking, checking-in and servicing groups of guests? .......................................... page 4 5. Please describe the various room rates for the same rooms and why? ............................................................... page 5 How can we employ the "Just in Time" purchasing concept? What is its strength? The "Just in Time" (JIT) concept has helped a lot of businesses to organize and manage themselves more efficiently, as well as achieve a better status in their planning and controlling operations. And to give a better understanding of the JIT we shall define next what it means and give a hypothetical situation in order to make it clearer. The JIT is when a certain supplier provides its product directly without having to use the warehouse facilities. For example, if a small hotel needs paper rolls and uses the JIT system it has a low and high par. Let us say that the low par is fifty toilet rolls and the high is hundred and fifty. This means that if the par goes as low as fifty, the computer automatically connects with the supplier and another hundred get delivered without the Housekeeping Manager having to call the supplier and keeping records of each stock. ...read more.


Heat transfer happens in several ways. Those are conduction, convection and radiation. The conduction happens usually via a material and its strength depends on the type and density of the material. Convection is when the heat is being transferred in fluids or gases in the air. Radiation is when the heat is transferred from one equipment to the other in the air. Heat loss can be a great problem if the building design has not been considered carefully. It may be lost through floors, the wind may also be a causer and loss occurs across cavities and from the outside surfaces. Therefore the proprietor has to make sure that the insulation of the building is up to a good level, as this may be very costly for the business. In order to help this, new materials have been created and thought of, which may help the good insulation and thermal properties of the vulnerable surfaces. There are certain types of insulation and such may be the glass fibre blankets, which trap the air between fibres to prevent heat loss. Expanded polystyrene and polyurethane are plastics, which trap the air, this time in the cells of the material. There are also other insulations such as vermiculite, double-glazing, polystyrene veneer and aluminium foil. Ventilation is also very important for the comfort of the users of a certain building. The air has to be dry, fresh and pure. This may be only done if the correct temperature is maintained. Dampness is a great factor for a good air, so the temperature has to be good enough to avoid it. ...read more.


It is impossible to attract customers at the weekend with prices that you give out during the weekdays, therefore the rack rate has to be reduced. Marginal cost is always about covering at least variable cost and contribute at least a little to the fixed costs. Marginal pricing is being used more for weekend breaks, off-season holidays, conferences and special events. Many hotels comply with the prices of their greater competitors and reduce them with 10-20%. This is what is called the competitor based pricing. This is also a form of marked-based pricing. Top-down pricing is when a new Hotel is trying to enter a new market. Rate cutting can be risky because the occupancy level to reach revenue is surprisingly high. Prestige product pricing is when there is a clear mind that the Hotel does not always win, if it lowers its prices. It may happen even the other way around, if the prices go up, the nature of the product changes and the hotel may get more exclusive. The next type for consideration is the inclusive and non-inclusive rates. There are four main types of tariffs. Those are fully inclusive (room plus all main meals), semi-inclusive (room, breakfast and one main meal), bed and breakfast and non-inclusive rate. But what needs to be noted here is that the inclusive term can never be determined because some guests use more services than others. But in order to approach the determination of the inclusive term we have to look upon two things - the characteristics of the hotel and the guest. The type of tariff has to depend on the guest requirements such as length of stay, spending power, homogeneity and predictability. The hotel characteristics depend on its grade, size, type of business, location and marketing considerations. ...read more.

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