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Objective: To understand the basic concepts of organisational structure as they appear on/affect ICT systems.

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Introduction

Organisations Objective: To understand the basic concepts of organisational structure as they appear on/affect ICT systems. What is an organisation? An organisation is a collection of human and non human resources that are brought together in order to fulfill a designated purpose. 1. Supermarket 2. School 3. Shop 4. Large commercial enterprise 5. Small informally structured non commercial group - green peace In some cases the structures are clearly defined and inflexible, in others the structure is less formally defined. Factors which determine the structures: > The size and the complexity of the organization the larger and more complex the organization the more likely it is to have clear lines of authority. > The geographical spread of the organization, those spread over a region often have a structure which reflect this with regionally based departments. > The value and the beliefs of the organization- some executives prefer more flexible structures believing they make more sense. > The nature of the organization- a multinational business may require a separate area for specialization. ...read more.

Middle

Success of an organization: Depends on three things: > Technology > People > Actual Structure of the Organisation People: Key resource- highly motivated therefore need to be able to participate in the organization (I.e. would require training) Technology: Relevant hardware software and information systems to carry out business effectively. Levels within an Hierarchical organization Senior managers (strategic): Responsible for long time planning and setting the overall goals for the organization, more interested in summated information which can be broken down into Middle Managers (tactical): Carry out the programs and plans by supervising employees. They need the Workers (operational): Responsible for producing goods and delivering the services. Successful Organisations: > They have visionary and enthusiastic leaders. > They unlock and develop the potential of employees. > They create an empowered work force. > They invest in people through communications and training. > They know there customers. > They learn from others. > They respond positively to demands. > They introduce new products and services > They know who there competitors are, and encourage innovation > They focus on poor business and explore strategic alliances > Exceed customer's expectations. ...read more.

Conclusion

Knowledge Work Systems: Used by information workers to help deal with problems requiring knowledge or technical expertise. Management Workers: Need management information system, this will enable them to control and plan the organisation. Management Information System: Helps managers monitor and control organisational performance and plan for the future. Questions: 1) Typically information is communicated at three levels within an organisation, identify these three levels (3) 2) An organisation generally consists of different levels, employing production workers, knowledge workers and managers, give an example of each of these type of worker in a named organisation. (4) 3) What type of transaction processing would be suitable for the following: > A mail order company taking orders by telephone and mail > A credit company processing sales transactions > A hospital appointment > A bookshop using EPOS systems to keep track of sales and stock Answers: 1) The three levels within an organisation are strategic, tactical and operational. 2) Production Worker: Workers on an Assembly Line in a factory, e.g. Toyota Knowledge Worker: Researchers working for Toyota to create new cars. Managers: general managers, controlling quality a workplace ...read more.

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