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P1 introduction to marketing

Free essay example:

Karimul Islam

Unit 11: introduction to marketing

Unit 1: Describe the concept and principles of marketing


In this assignment I am going to explain what marketing is and also describe the concept and principles of marketing. I will be describing two definitions of marketing.


According to Kotler in 1980 ‘marketing is the human activity directed at satisfying human needs and wants through an exchange process.’

1) Human needs

A need is a crucial necessity that any person wishes to satisfy. People have basic needs for shelter, food, affection, admiration and self development. Human biology and social activity has created all these needs and this why customer need is very broad.

There is a theory for human needs this is called Maslow’s hierarchy of needs introduced by Abraham Maslow.


Maslow’s hierarchy of need is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels which are physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self actualization. Physiological needs are linked with the lowest level while the top level is the self actualization needs. Physiological needs and safety are important because without food, water and shelter the human body will not function.

This means that business and other organisations will need to please customers by providing them with all the basic needs in order for their business to survive and expand, as well as making profit. For example one of the basic needs for human is hunger. Consumers need to eat when they are hungry. A customer eating in a restaurant like McDonalds satisfies the need to meet hunger because of large amount of food given and the taste of the food. Businesses have always looked towards consumer needs; consumers will always often choose that product than of a competitor.


Whichever business pleases customers with their product, customers will always buy products from that business and this in turn will increase sale. For example customers will look for quality in a product; quality plays a major role in customer needs. This is because Customers will always want to buy products that are in top quality and at a reasonable price. Markets will change quickly this is why it is important for businesses to look for new products and marketing opportunities.  Organisations that have failed to appreciate customer needs, found themselves being behind other businesses, this will make the business go bankrupt.

2) Principles of marketing

Businesses that follow the marketing concept will always be directed to focus on customers. Customers will be in the centre of all business decisions for example the marketing teams decisions and planning. A business that follows this method is market orientated. There are other business with different market orientations, these are:

The Production concept

This concentrates on production and distribution economies. This is based on the idea that customers will choose to buy readily available products that are low priced. For example a builder who will buy readily available concrete.

The selling concept

This is when customers are manipulated and persuaded to buy products through aggressive selling and promotion. The concept is mostly practiced with unwanted products that customers do not want to buy the product because they have no need for it, such as insurance or electricity. E.g. Orange advertises their deals on posters in high streets to attract customers who normally don’t like their offers because it is expensive. So advertising these offers will show that these offers have benefits like unlimited calls and texts for a weak.

The product concept

This is when the company primarily focuses on the products quality, performance and features. Consumers favour products that are of high standard, this is why organisation continuously works on how to improve the product. For example Ford is selling a new focus which is aimed at increasing performance and comfort for consumers.

The marketing concept

The marketing concept is an idea that businesses should examine the needs of their customers and then create decisions to satisfy those needs, better than the competition. Most businesses have accepted the marketing concept and is now the central point of all their business activities. For example Sony is now creating a new digitalized PSP free from UMD disks because customer’s trend has changed, they don’t want to buy UMDs to play games, they want to download it and play it on the PSP. So the new PSP will satisfy customers because customers will be able to download games on play it on their PSP.

Private, public and voluntary sectors

Private sector

Basically to continue a workable operation and deliver their products or services. Organisations prefer to be part of private sector because of greater chances of access to resources and market. The aims and objectives of a private sector include achieving higher profitability, networking to get access to resources, supply of raw materials, to promote their products efficiently, increase market share as private sectors face tough competition, developing quality human resources which could allow business to achieve competitive advantage and provide better value products with innovation e.g. to be one of the main leaders in the market.

Voluntary sector

The voluntary sector aims to provide important services to parts of the local community who have needs that are not fulfilled by the government or for-profit organisations. For example a voluntary organisation like Riverside charity UK, aims to teach people in the local community who have difficulty in speaking English, this in turn will allow the people to look for jobs and the local community will benefit from them.

Public sector

The public sector aims to collect tax from citizens and improve government run services. These services can be public roads, public transport, military, primary and secondary education and health care trust such as the NHS. The public sector main aim is provide satisfaction for individuals which will benefit society. For example government will collect large amount of tax from its citizens to create new rooms for patients in the NHS and providing salary for doctors and nurses so they can be satisfied. This will make NHS hospitals more efficient because employees will work properly because they are satisfied with their salary.

Smart objectives

S - Specific, significant, stretching

M - Measurable, meaningful, motivational

A - Agreed upon, attainable, achievable, acceptable, action-oriented

R - Realistic, relevant, reasonable, rewarding, results-oriented

T - time-based, timely, tangible, track able


Market share objectives – to achieve a certain level of sales within a particular time objectives first must be set. E.g. private organisation like Kellogg’s wants to gain 3% more market share by the end of the year by the launch of their new product Coco rocks.


Promotional objective - the metropolitan police set objectives, such as to notify 15% of young adults of the danger of knife crime in the borough of Newham by 2012. Another example can be, NHS to increase awareness of the dangers of AIDS in the UK from 12% to 25% by 2017.


Profitability objective – Greenpeace aim is tosell products e.g. small stuffed animal to customers to promote Greenpeace and keep the organisation running. Greenpeace wants to make 40,000 pound by then end of the year so they fund more projects.

Principles of marketing of McDonalds

The production concept

McDonalds sells readily available burgers to customers. McDonald’s products are often low priced such as their cheese burger which only costs 99p. Customers who want to buy readily available food will go to McDonalds.

The selling concept

McDonalds uses their website to show customers about their new products such as oriental snack wrap. Customers mainly go McDonalds to buy ham burgers. The websites aims at these customers to try something different.

The product concept

McDonalds sells burgers which contain 100% beef. The quality of McDonalds beef and fish checked by the supplier. McDonalds product are of high quality and taste that satisfies most customers.

The marketing concept

McDonalds is now selling salads which contain vegetables such as their garden side salad. Consumers are now becoming health conscious and want to eat healthy and low calorie foods. McDonald’s garden salad is aimed at these customers who wan to eat healthy.

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