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AS and A Level: People & Operations Management

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How to manage people successfully

  1. 1 A business needs to be clear on their recruitment needs and then use recruitment practices to ensure that they find them.
  2. 2 A business must train their staff in the right way. This is likely to include a mix of off the job and on the job training.
  3. 3 Staff must be appraised so that the business ensures that they are performing the job correctly. This appraisal process will often include objective setting for employees and then judging whether they have performed to this standard.
  4. 4 Staff need to be managed so that they are motivated to do a good job.
  5. 5 One of the main measures of the effectiveness of staff is to look at their productivity. This measures the output of individual workers.

Five motivation theories

  1. 1 Identifying where you see examples of the below theories in action can give big analysis marks. Motivation is not all about money. Money gets people to work but only in certain circumstances does it then lead to a more motivated workforce.
  2. 2 F. W. Taylor believed that all that was necessary was for the management to decide on the most efficient means of production and then pay workers to do it.
  3. 3 Elton Mayo said that workers work best when their group needs are considered and they are treated as human beings rather than as machines as in Taylor’s theory.
  4. 4 Frederick Herzberg discriminated between hygiene factors like pay and good working conditions which did not motivate in themselves but the absence of them demotivated and the motivators like praise and interesting work which did motivate.
  5. 5 Maslow said that we have a hierarchy of needs and we are motivated by the next unfilled need. Most workers in developed countries have sufficient money to eat so you will not motivate them just with more money but by meeting their needs and by work that is fulfilling.

Five key concepts in operations management

  1. 1 Operations management is about how and where businesses produce their product e.g. labour or capital intensive, in-house or outsourced.
  2. 2 Capacity utilisation is the percentage of total possible output a business is actually producing. Too low and capital is not being used fully, too high and there is no slack for machine breakdown, sickness or new orders.
  3. 3 Economies of scale are the benefits accruing to a business for being larger e.g. it is likely to be able to buy goods in bulk, have more specialist managers and workers, produce on a larger scale.
  4. 4 Lean production is where a business reduces waste as much as possible. Just-in-time, where businesses hold minimum stock and produce to order is a key element of this.
  5. 5 Ensuring quality might be through quality control (checking at the end) quality assurance (all staff responsible for quality) or Total Quality Management where the whole ethos of the business is centred on quality.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 8
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    NVQ2 Business and admin assessment 1. Know the employment rights and responsibilities of the employee and employer

    4 star(s)

    Briefly describe employer and employee responsibilities for equality and diversity in a business environment. You should give at least two employer responsibilities and two employee responsibilities. If possible, provide relevant equality and diversity procedures from your workplace (or place of study) to support your answer. These documents should be annotated to highlight the relevant sections. One employer?s responsibility to equality and diversity is when hiring staff to make sure that they consider everyone for the position regardless of their age, weight, gender, religion, disability or anything else that may be discriminated on, there are slight exceptions to this, for

    • Word count: 2995
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Understanding Discipline

    4 star(s)

    Some would describe severe authoritarianism as dictatorship. Dictatorial authority is a very severe version of authoritarian authority. There is a hierarchy here as well, but the overall leader is indefinitely charge and has absolute power. Team members who are under this type of authority must have a huge amount of discipline as they are not aloud to ask questions on the relevance of their orders; they must do what they are ordered to do because the leader says so. This type of authority can have many disadvantages such as low morale within the team, and defection. Also this type of authority can sometimes lead to very harsh punishment to those who disobey such as torture and violence.

    • Word count: 2180
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Explain how customer service standards are planned, implemented and monitored, and the impact this has on the operation of a selected business.

    3 star(s)

    Methods of setting aims for customer service are wide. It depends on company and what good or service they provide. Some of the businesses have different aims, like providing employment for the owner; increasing sales and production or taking over businesses. Except aims, like making profits, providing goods and services, businesses have to state objectives by which they can get their aims. In example, if a business settled an aim to make a profit, they have to think how to achieve this; they need to set targets to know how much they want to spend and how much they want to receive.

    • Word count: 2511
  4. Monitoring, Maintaining and Improving Customer Service at Disneyland Paris

    Another method Disneyland Paris use to monitor customer service is using mystery shoppers as a method of inspection and monitoring customer service. This involves a quality assurance employee of Disneyland or hired externally to dress up as an ordinary customer and evaluate the level of customer service which their current staff are providing customers with. The quality assurance employee will be looking for particular characteristics from cast member employed by Disneyland Paris such as; politeness, how considerate they are and if they present themselves well.

    • Word count: 2902
  5. Financial methods of motivating and empowering employees

    This gives the high achievers to benefit from their hard work. The disadvantages of performance related pay to the business are that the reward system can be detrimental to the business because employees may only be focusing on the financial reward rather than development needs. Because of this, co-operation and teamwork can be hindered. There is the danger that employees may expect a pay-out year on year regardless of rising requirements on performance related pay. Finally, this method is only short-term and wouldn't motivate workers long term; it does not encourage employee loyalty.

    • Word count: 2806
  6. Business Operations Strategies and Supply Chain Management.

    Speed is also a crucial factor in operations as customers usually have a much lower tolerance for waiting. Short time lags are important in operations between the customer ordering and the delivery. Otherwise the customer may get sick of waiting and move onto a competitor. Overheard costs- This refers to the ongoing expenses of an operating business. Overhead expenses are all costs on the income statement except for direct labour, direct materials & direct expenses. Overhead expenses include accounting fees, advertising, depreciation, insurance, interest, legal fees, rent, repairs, supplies, taxes, telephone bills, travel and utilities costs. Over-head costs can be classes under four titles such as Functional classification, Classification on the nature of expenditure Element-wise classification and Classification on behaviour of expenditure.

    • Word count: 2104
  7. Illustrate, using examples, the benefits to business of providing good customer service to both internal and external customers.

    For loyal customers there should be special discounts to make sure they will use company's service for really long time. Caring for external customers, benefits for the business An external customer is a customer who is not a part of an organisation; an external customer is one who gets a service or product from the organisation. External customers have a choice in choosing company where they buy thing and if something does not 'suit' them they can in easy way find another company in which products or services make them more satisfied.

    • Word count: 2622
  8. Health and safety in construction. Designers shouldnt commence work on a project unless the client for the project is fully aware of his duties under the Construction (Design and Management)2007 Regulations.

    Clients; (b) Other designers; and (c) Contractors, to comply with their duties under these Regulations. Contractors Responsibilities (1) like a designer no contractor shall carry out construction work in relation to a project unless any client for the project is aware of his duties under these Regulations. (2) Every contractor shall plan, manage and monitor construction work carried out by them or under their control in a way that ensures, it is carried out without risks to health and safety.

    • Word count: 2649
  9. Evaluation of Human Resources, Physical Resources and Financial Resources

    Coordination of the teams in different types of businesses is very important in ensuring that they meet the targets that the company sets them. When all employees of the team complete their assigned roles the team will run more smoothly. It is also important that a manager is always there so that they can supervise his staff and also if there is a problem that they might not be able to handle the manager will defiantly being trained to deal with the situation.

    • Word count: 2724
  10. Explain the key features of legislation and regulations on health and safety and how they are applied to the working conditions in North West Regional College.

    The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 apply. In practice, employers may delegate specific health and safety tasks to individuals in the NWRC pats Mc Hugh is in charge of Health and safety. But the employer retains the ultimate responsibility no matter who carries out the tasks. The employer should therefore maintain an audit track, making clear that is doing what and confirming that these tasks are being carried out. RIDDOR is the reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences Regulation 1995.

    • Word count: 2744
  11. I had to consider the type of documents that were required when recruiting a new employee for McDonalds. I had to make a variety of documents that would all help to get the ideal shift manager to work at McDonalds.

    I had to make sure I included the job role, where the job is based, the hours of work, how to apply and the experience that I required for the shift manager. The job advert is the start of the process of documents that are used to help find the correct recruit after the whole process. I'm going to discuss the advantage and disadvantages of this document which I used for the recruitment process of the shift manager. Advantages By using this type of document when recruiting for McDonalds, you can appeal to a much wider audience; get a bigger cross section of people from different backgrounds.

    • Word count: 2166
  12. Recruiting Staff Case Study. I am Human Resource Assistant Manager. This is a report about recruiting an additional Front Office Clerk for job handling, to promote better service for guest and help to work more efficiency.

    The reasons for requisition are because there are some feedbacks from customers that they think the service quality of the front desk is not good enough and seem to be disappointed. Staffs' attitude looks very bad and dissatisfied. The staffs of the front desk are always very busy. When the customers need helps, the staffs respond them very late. Then, I asked the Front Desk Manager about that, and then I understand the main reason that why the staffs cannot provide good service to the customers.

    • Word count: 2328
  13. Skills and personality attributes needed by a good manager.

    Diplomat - "a person who is tactful and skillful in managing delicate situations, handling people, etc." Diplomatic skill is important for a business manager, to represent the company and improve company's image. Diplomatic person is available to deal with different kind of problems in eloquent way and also can win good conditions in contracts or deals with other firms by skilful speeches and good management of arguments.

    • Word count: 2066
  14. Evaluation of chosen career path

    Another reason for this is because it requires more qualification than I have; a science course have to be chosen at college/6th form and I have taken these courses. Similarly, I have not chosen to enter in the public service sector because I find the job is more physically challenge and I believe I am not able to handle these sort of tasks. My career pathway is as follows: After finishing my A levels, I will apply to 5 universities I wish to attend.

    • Word count: 2117
  15. Interview Evaluation

    As well as motivational factors it also contained training which another reason that encourages the candidate to apply was. The job description contains the Greenford High School logo in the header which made it look more professional and a list of the companies they're associated with such as Healthy School which again made the school look more professional. In the person specification, it contains a list of qualifications, skills and experience the candidate must have in order for them to get the job. This is so that Greenford High School can employ the right candidate. Like the job description, the person specification also contains the Greenford High School logo and the companies they're associated with as well.

    • Word count: 2046
  16. Leadership_Practice_in_TAWAM

    TAWAM entered into a ten-year affiliate agreement with Johns Hopkins Medicine International (JHI) to include management of TAWAM while developing the leadership and management capabilities of the facility (JHI, 2010). The current management staff is comprised of expatriates and locals. Developing leadership competencies at the management level in TAWAM hospital fosters the provision of better guidance and motivation to lower-level employees as well as the communication of recommendations to upper management on how to continuously develop the hospital and its personnel. II. The Condition of Leadership in TAWAM Hospital Leadership style in TAWAM hospital is semi-autocratic and semi-democratic.

    • Word count: 2880
  17. Dilemmas_in_leadership

    Hence, it's important to be prepared in advance with strategies that can be used to counter resistance. Coordinated ideas and efforts from different parties' form the core of success in changing leadership style. Change from authoritarian to collaborative requires commitment and provision of direction to the employees as most are used to being given orders and supervised as they carry out their responsibilities. As a result of this it's important for the leadership to change the culture and structure of the organization.

    • Word count: 2138
  18. AO3 Managing Finance

    Each of the departments within the company are given a target and will be monitored either by the manager of that department or by someone from Robert Brown's department. Each department's overall performance, effectiveness and proficiency will be checked and brought up in the monthly meeting of departmental managers. This meeting is to ensure that everything in the company is running smoothly and productively. The forecasting plans that Robert draws out will effect each person within the company individually as well as keep the company ahead of their competitors and in among the consumers favourites.

    • Word count: 2303
  19. Internal and external factors to be considered when planning human resource requirement

    Every business's HR needs to plan ahead to make sure they meet the workforce demands of the business. The Human Resource strategy they use; must be carefully produced and executed in a right way to achieve targets. 2. Definitions 2.1 Workforce planning is an organized recognition and examination of what a business is going to require in terms of the size, type, and quality of workforce to achieve its objectives. It determines what blend of skills, experience and qualification is required and steps to get the right number of people in the right place at the right time.

    • Word count: 2018
  20. The job vacancy of working in Asda as a department manager requires many skills from the applicant/ future employee. The employability skills are essential to be able to work effectively in a modern workplace.

    It is vital that the applicant has a GCSE in maths and English at a grace C level of the minimum. Reading into an employee's qualifications is a requirement for Asda alongside other business as it allows the business to see whether or not the applicant is able to perform their duties well. The business will be able to recognise this with the qualifications that the applicant provides. Qualifications also show the degree of education the applicant has and how far they intend to stay in education.

    • Word count: 2253
  21. Travel and Tourism. For this task I will script a welcome meeting for two destinations, which will be Disneyland Paris, and Manhattan in New York.

    Additionally for the adults there is a chance for an excellent photo opportunity, just position yourself on the 'bridge'. So children keep a look out for them! Also there is a swimming pool in this hotel for those smaller members of the family. Next I would like talk about the weather, July in Paris is generally cool to pleasantly balmy, with average temperatures at around 66 degrees F. In -2- recent years, however, major heat waves have occasionally struck, particularly in late July, and temperatures have sometimes climbed to the 90's.

    • Word count: 2736
  22. retail and business travel agents

    Business travel involves getting the client to the appropriate destination for business meetings and related duties. The Retail Travel Agents belong to the Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA). The role of the Retail Travel Agent is to provide a location, where tourists who are seeking information about travel plans will go. The Retail Travel Agents sell arrange of leisure and recreation travel products and services to outgoing, incoming and domestic tourists. They act as a link between customers and tour operators; they are in constant contact with airlines and car hire companies. Contact is maintained over the phone, through the post and the computer systems in place e.g.

    • Word count: 2509
  23. Principles of customer service and methods used to monitor them in two organisations. P2 benefits of good customer service and what happens when theres bad customer service in the two organisations.

    This is especially so when the travel and tourism industry. For example en suite facilities and Hotel bathrooms, new rides at theme parks, a drinking service on long coach journeys are now expected services and not extras. The basic principles of customer service in any organisation are: First Impressions Company Image Speed and accuracy of service Products and services offered Customer services policies Teamwork Effective communication Meeting customers' needs Mission statements On our class visit to Magherabuoy Hotel we were able to observe and to ask questions on these principles.

    • Word count: 2339
  24. Free essay

    In this task I am required to define motivation and retaining staff, methods used by the business to motivate and retain their staff and relevant PEST factors in the workforce plan. I am also going to define how motivation affects a school

    As the business becomes more motivated the reputation also increases because parents will come to check on how their son or daughter is doing and if they find that they are doing very well they will like the education that their children are receiving and so they will respect the school and advise others to go to the same school. Another reason why a business needs motivation is because it will boost the performance of the students that are studying there because the teachers will be working hard to meet their aims and objectives they will be giving better quality of education in order to meet their objectives.

    • Word count: 2418
  25. Exploring Team Development

    They tend not to have a specific role but all have individual or group tasks to be complete. It also can have some bad affects such as lack of structure which results to less professionalism. These teams can have different sizes. It depends on what the task is but it tends to be little tasks. The size usually is a small number such as. As this is an odd number if they have a disagreement between the team members there will always be a majority vote. There is also a temporary project or task team; they are set up for a short time for completion of a specific task or project.

    • Word count: 2836

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Critically discuss how organisations can develop a human resource strategy"

    "8. Conclusion Developing a HR strategy is imperative for organisations in today's competitive business environment. The various approaches to HRM strategy outlined in the report are not always practical as in reality it is very difficult to have a "one size fits all" HR theory, and this means that there can never really be a "one size fits all" HR strategy. In reality when organisations are developing a HR strategy they will fit somewhere between the "hard" and "soft" approach. Another point is that contingencies need to be considered, as HR, strategies need to be contingent with the organisations subcultures. The following concepts need to be considered if the HR strategy an organisation adopts is to be effective * Different human resource practices should be coherent and complement each other. * There should be a fit between the coherent sets of human resource practices and other systems within the organisation. * The human resource systems should be in line with the business or competitive strategy of the organisation. * The human resource system adopted by the organisation should be compatible with its operating environment. 1"

  • Evaluate how managing resources and controlling budgets can improve the performance of a business

    "In my opinion breakeven analysis will not worry the business a lot because they are going to have their product stored and they know that the products are going to be sold soon, which will then make their profit for the business. Setting budgets will be essential for the restaurant because after their restaurant has been open for 1 to 2 months, they will know what product is being sold more and which one isn't. So therefore they will set themselves budgets, the less the product is being sold then they will order it less and the more a product is being sold then they will order more of it."

  • This essay will explain how groups are formed and will discuss how motivation techniques promote effective group work and a well motivated workforce.

    "In conclusion this essay shows different ways how groups are formed and different types of groups such as formal and informal groups. There are many ways of motivating employees but employers should know that there are different ways of rewarding. Different theorists have different ways of explaining their techniques on motivating workforces."

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