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The Role of ICT.

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1) The Role of ICT a) Computing - a look backwards. Within half a century, computers and information technology have changed the world and affected millions of lives in ways that no one could have foreseen. Here are some of the things that people have said about computers: "I think there's a world market for maybe five computers." (Thomas Watson, the chairman of IBM, in 1940) "I have travelled the length and breadth of this country and talked with the best people, and I can assure you that data processing is a fad that won't last out the year." (The editor in charge of business books for Prentice Hall, in 1957) "There is no reason why anyone would want to have a computer in their home." (President of Digital Equipment Corporation, in 1957) Contrary to these predictions, computers are transforming the ways in which we learn, communicate, do business, enjoy our leisure and live our everyday lives. Whatever career you pursue in the future, knowledge of computers skills and concepts is likely to be beneficial or even essential. The aim is to make you competent and confident in the use of computers and to give you an understanding of the uses and impact of computers in society today. Here, we will look at some of the ways that information technology has changed patterns of work. ...read more.


In some cases the new tasks may be more satisfying, and in other cases, less satisfying. Think of some examples where computerisation has one of these two outcomes. d) Teleworking Teleworking involves carrying out work away from the office and communicating with the employer through the use of computer and telecommunications equipment. Often teleworkers are based at home, but they can also work from telecentres, satellite offices or even on the move. Although a study done in 1995 at Newcastle University found that less than 1 worker in 100 was a teleworker (spending at least half of their working week at home using a computer), organisations are becoming increasingly interested in various forms of teleworking, which has benefits both for the employer and the employee. According to research done by Henley Business School in 1997, there are already 4 million teleworkers in the UK e) Benefits of teleworking * It may be easier to concentrate on work in a quiet environment at home than in a noisy office; * Workers save on commuting time and cost, with the associated environmental benefits of keeping cars off the roads; * Workers enjoy greater flexibility, and can arrange their working hours around other commitments such as picking children up from schools; * Employers save on the cost of office space and overheads such as heat and light; * People in different locations can work in ...read more.


* Management skills. Project leaders, system analysts, network administrators or database administrators, among others, needed to be able to manage schedules, resources and people. They also need to be able to motivate the people working for them and may need to manage change within an organisation. * Design Skills. A system analyst, for example, requires creative and critical thinking as well as the technical knowledge to design new systems. * Problem solving abilities. Anyone involved with user support, after-sales service or programming will need well-developed problem-solving abilities. k) Exercises 1. Individuals and organisations have become so dependent upon I.T. systems that the consequences of their failure could be catastrophic to the individual or the organisation. Give two different examples of types of I.T. system for which failure would be catastrophic. In each case explain why the failure could prove to be catastrophic. 2. Briefly describe two social impacts and two organisational impacts commonly identified as a result of introducing computerised information systems into business organisations. 3. Through the 1990s an increasing number of people have become teleworkers. These are people who work from home using a personal computer linked to a Wide Area Network via a modem and the telephone system. Discuss, with the aid of specific examples, the advantages and disadvantages to individuals, organisations and society of this type of employment. 4. Professional progression within the ICT industry requires more than just technical skills. Give three other necessary qualities and explain why they are important. ...read more.

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