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This essay will explain how groups are formed and will discuss how motivation techniques promote effective group work and a well motivated workforce.

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Introduction

This essay will explain how groups are formed and will discuss how motivation techniques promote effective group work and a well motivated workforce. A group can be defined as "two or more freely interacting people with shared norms and goals and a common identity" (Kreitner, Kinicki and Buelens 1999). However there is no specific definition to the term 'group'. Cartwright and Zander (1968) identified eight different definitions of the word all which represent a particular perspective on the most important characteristics of a group. Mullins (2005) states that "groups are deliberately planned and created by the management as part of the formal organisation structure." Managers create formal groups to accomplish goals and serve the needs of the organisation. The main purpose of formal groups is to perform specific tasks and achieve specific objectives defined by the organisation. However informal groups are not formed or planned by the management. These develop naturally among employees through communication and interaction within the workplace. Informal groups tends to satisfy employees social needs, for example developing meaningful relationships with other people and obtaining and sharing important information. ...read more.

Middle

To increase motivation and group work within the childcare industry one should consider Herzberg's Two Factor, which is hygiene and motivating factors. His theory hinges on the idea that people are motivated by the things that make them feel good about work. In childcare it is important to ensure hygiene factors such as the conditions the employees work in are satisfactory and comfortable along with security of having an acceptable amount of wage and benefits such as pension. Another way to motivate employees is by reinforcing them. Skinner's theory simply states that the employee's behaviour that leads to positive outcomes will be repeated (skinner 1953). Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviour that will lead them to positive outcomes. For example if the teacher has a plan for an activity, the manager should encourage the teacher to the activity or the play. By this he/she will feel valued and would like to make further contribution in other tasks. Some employees are quiet and some are loud. Despite people's personality, everyone should have a say in discussion or at least be given the chance. Managers should be able to build up self esteem in their employees and for their employees to build up to their work colleagues. ...read more.

Conclusion

As suggested by the expectancy theory, workers expect some sort of reward as an outcome of the effort that they put in. It is vital that communication is a two-way action as not all people have the same incentives as mentioned before, one working in the childcare vocation may get to an advance whereas another may prefer the option to work in another group, such as a different year group or subject. So it is essential that one projects their desired needs in order for them to be met. However, a lack of communication can de-motivate employees and one should be careful to not send out misleading information. Managers who do not meet their demands as promised, causes a break-down in communication and trust, which will therefore lead on to cause motivational problems, but if managed to maintain this trust then they will be more valued, as will their decisions, upholding the employees will to co-operate. In conclusion this essay shows different ways how groups are formed and different types of groups such as formal and informal groups. There are many ways of motivating employees but employers should know that there are different ways of rewarding. Different theorists have different ways of explaining their techniques on motivating workforces. ...read more.

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