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What are the Functions of Management?

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(a) According to Jewel (2000), management is the attainment of organisational goals in an effective manner by planning, organising, leading and controlling organisational resources. Follet sited in Mushipe (2004: 28) that management ?is the art of getting work done by other. From this definition, it is clear that managers work with other people to achieve organisational goals.? From the definitions stated above, one can deduce that management is the process of planning, leading, organising and controlling both people and other resources which are available to accomplish the set goals and objectives of the organisation. One of the major functions of management in an organisation is to plan. Planning entails establishing organisational goals, objectives, policies and programmes (Mushipe, 2004). So the importance of management in an organisation when they plan is that planning increases the organisation's ability to adopt future eventualities (www.management.blurtit.com 2012/07/01). The future is generally uncertain and things are likely to change with the passage of time. The uncertainty is augmented with an increase in time of dimension. With such a rise in uncertainty, there is generally a corresponding increase in the alternative courses of action from which a selection must be made. Through planning, the importance of management also is in the allocation of resources fairly (www.management.blurtit.com 20/06/12). ...read more.


In simpler terms, it is characterised by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. According to Dias (2009), democratic leadership style which is also known as participative style consists of managers and employees working together to make decisions. In this type of style employees are involved in the process of making decisions and there is also a two-way communication. To a great extent a manager will be more effective by adopting the democratic rather than autocratic leadership style in that it allows feedback since it uses a two-way communication (www.mindbook.com 24/06/2012) while autocratic style does not give a room for feedback since it uses one-way communication. From the points above, one can say that theorugh feedback the manager can easily find out whether the employees got the message correctly or not, if not he can find another to take. So this is what makes it an effective style unlike in autocratic style whethr the message was delivered correctly or not the manager will only find out through the actions of the subordinates. Manager will be more effective by adopting a democratic leadership style in that it motivates employees through involving them in the decision making as compared to the autocratic leadership style which tends to demotivate employees which are perceived by managers as those who fall under Theory Y of McGregor's theory (www.leadership_expert.co.uk 04/07/12) ...read more.


Quality may also improve as the employees' work is monitored constantly. Time wasting and the need to waste resources is also reduced. The manager can also be effective if it is that kind of a manager who prefers having complte control over an operation (www.mindtool.com 24/06/12). Because the outcome is totally in his hands, tha manager does not experience stress of having to rely on help from outside his work area to complte the project or task. For this type, a leader having complete authority can actually result in reduced stress since he has complete control over his own fate. In conclusion, I can say that the manager will be more effective by adopting either democratic or autocratic leadership style depending on the situation the organisation is in and the kind of employees. For example, in situations that are particularly stressful, such as during military conflicts, autocratic leadership can be the best because it allows members of the group to focus on performing specific tasks without worrying about making complex decisions (www.psychology.about.com/od/leade...... 05/07/12). This allows group members to become highly skilled at performing certain duties which can be beneficial to the group. While in situations where quality is more important than efficiency or productivity democratic style is the most effective for a manager to adopt. ...read more.

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