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What Do You Understand By The Term 'Intelligence' & What Are Its Major Elements? Examine Critically & Discuss The Element Of 'Collection' & Its Essential Characteristics

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Introduction

What Do You Understand By The Term 'Intelligence' & What Are Its Major Elements? Examine Critically & Discuss The Element Of 'Collection' & Its Essential Characteristics Assignment no. 2 Words: 2,500 "Sizing up opponents to assess dangers and distances is the proper course of action" (Sun Tzu) Intelligence is a term that is definite yet broad as it encompasses vast vicinity. Depending on the context, it has different forms. Intelligence has main elements of planning, collection, analysis, processing, production and dissemination. The element of collection is cosmic with an immense amount of sources where intelligence can be gathered from. While the definition and importances of intelligence are somewhat controversial, there is a consensus on the definition relating to security and collection. The essential characteristics of collection are mainly from human sources or open source intelligence. It is widely understood that intelligence is "the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations: the skilled use of reason: the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria"1 The dictionary meaning defines intelligence as "the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge by means of thought and reason."2 Intelligence can be defined as the "product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas."3 Collection can be defined as the purposeful acquisition of any information that might be desired by an analyst, consumer, or operator. Collection activity can take several overlapping forms: open source collection, clandestine collection, human source collection, and technical collection.4 Modern intelligence gathering has both an electronic and human face. The gathering, or collection, of intelligence is nothing more than stealing someone's secrets. It is done strategically, which means according to some direction, plan, or mission, and it is done competitively, which means that your opponents and allies are also most likely doing it, and it is done non-transparently, or in secret. ...read more.

Middle

Human intelligence is derived from human sources.17 To the public, HUMINT remains synonymous with espionage and clandestine activities, yet, in reality, most HUMINT collection is performed by overt collectors such as diplomats and military attach�s. HUMINT is the oldest method for collecting information about a foreign power. HUMINT includes overt, sensitive, and clandestine activities and the individuals who exploit, control, supervise, or support these sources. Clandestine HUMINT sources include agents who have been recruited or have volunteered to provide information to a foreign nation, and foreign nationals who successfully infiltrate an organization with a cover story. The latter cases are fairly rare, and generally come to the United States under the guise of being political refugees.18 Once in the United States, they move into positions that allow them to gather political, technical, or economic information for their governments. According to one estimate, over 100 countries currently conduct intelligence operations against the United States.19 Even with the explosion of technical capabilities, HUMINT can still provide information that even the most proficient technical collectors cannot, such as access to internal memoranda and to compartmented information. Most importantly, human collectors can provide key insights into the intentions of an adversary, whereas technical collection systems are often limited to determining capabilities.20 HUMINT can be used to reveal adversary plans and intentions, or uncover scientific and weapons developments before they are used or are detected by technical collection systems. HUMiNT can also provide documentary evidence such as blueprints of facilities, copies of adversary plans, or copies of diplomatic or policy documents. Finally, HUMINT is extremely cost effective compared with technical collection systems and does not require a significant technological production base for support. Signals intelligence is derived from signal intercepts comprising, either individually or in combination, all communications intelligence (COMINT), electronic intelligence (ELlNT), and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence (FISINT), however transmitted.21[9] COMINT, one of the primary SIGINT disciplines, includes information derived from intercepted communications transmissions. COMINT targets voice and teleprompter traffic, video, Morse code traffic, or even facsimile messages. ...read more.

Conclusion

9 Central Intelligence Agency, Intelligence: The Acme of Skill (Washington, D.C.: CIA, n.d.), pp.6-7. Central Intelligence Agency, Fact Book in Intelligence (Washington, D.C.: CIA, 1993), pp.10-11. 10 Berkowitz, Bruce D. "Information Age Intelligence." Foreign Policy, Summer 1996, no. 103, p. 35-50 11 Troy, T. (1991). "The Correct Definition of Intelligence" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 5(4):433-54. 12 Jeffrey T. Richelson, (1995) The U.S. Intelligence Community. Westview Publishers, U.S.A, p.326 13 Troy, T. (1991). "The Correct Definition of Intelligence" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 5(4):433-54. 14 The Joint Staff, Doctrine for Intelligence Support to Joint Operations, Washington, DC: Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. June 30. 1991. 15 Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Department of Defence Dictionary of Military Terms (New York: Arco Publishing, 1988), p. 328 16 Interagency OPSEC Support Staff, Compendium of OPSEC Terms, Greenbelt, MD: IOSS, April 1991. 17 Interagency OPSEC Support Staff, Compendium of OPSEC Terms, Greenbelt, MD: IOSS, April 1991. 18 Suzanne Wood, Katherine L. Herbig, and Peter A. W. Lewis, American Espionage, 1945-1989, Monterey, CA: Defence Personnel Security Research and Education Centre, 1990. 19 Defence Science Board, Report of the Defence Science Board Summer Study Task Force on Information Architecture for the Battlefield, Washington, DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defence for Acquisition and Technology, October 1994. 20 Jeffrey Richelson, American Espionage and the Soviet Target, New York: William Morrow, 1987. 21 Intelligence Community Staff, Glossary of Intelligence Terms and Definitions, Washington, DC: ICS, June 1989 22 William Rosenau,"A Deafening Silence: U.S. Policy and the SIGINT Facility at Lourdes," Intelligence and National Security, 9:4 (October 1994), pp. 723-734. 23 Daniel B. Sibbet, "Commercial Remote-Sensing," American Intelligence Journal, Spring/Summer 1993, p. 37, and Testimony of Robin Armani before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Public Hearing on Commercial Remote Sensing, November 17. 1993 24 On-Site Inspection Agency, "Fact Sheet: The Open Skies Treaty," May 1993, and U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Treaty on Open Skies (Official Text), April 10, 1992. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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