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AS and A Level: Classics

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  1. Charging and Discharging a Capacitor at Constant Rate

    Apparatus * Variable resistor 0 - 50 k? 1 * Microammeter 1 * Digital voltmeter 1 * 2200�F capacitor 1 * Battery box with 2 dry cells 1 * Switch 1 * Stop watch 1 D. Theory Charging capacitor at constant rate Fig.a Current falls with time Fig.b Current can be kept constant The capacitance C of a capacitor is defined as the charge Q stored in it per unit voltage. Thus, for a capacitor at a p.d. V with charge Q, the capacitance is C = Q/V.

    • Word count: 2486
  2. Conflicting Values between Phaedra and the Nurse in Euripides's Hippolytus

    It can be argued that their values differ or alternatively that the Nurse supports the same social values, except to a lesser extent and considers that these do not apply to love. Yet, both women share the same values which respect to fate and the divine intervention of gods in mortal's lives. Phaedra mentions that she was '' failing to win victory over Cypris '' this indicates she is aware that she cannot overcome her fate or the god's wishes , so she settles to commit suicide.

    • Word count: 701
  3. Change seen in "Away", "The Island' and Unicef

    As the text continues Gow places Gwen in many situations of conflict, the most substantial of these includes argument with her daughter Meg. This confrontation is extremely ironic as Gwen is ignorant of her qualities however easily identifies them in others. An example includes "Your developing a nasty streak, your becoming a snide, nasty snide girl" from Act 2 scene 3. This also shows the audience how reflection is often all that is needed for change, however in the case of Gwen a lack of, may cause no change.

    • Word count: 1590
  4. The Effect of Reactant Concentration on the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

    Then pour the amount of Sodium Thiosulfate using a measuring cylinder to the conical flask, the amount will vary depending on the sample. 4. Rinse the measuring cylinder in water under the tap to clean it of excess sodium thiosulfate. 5. Pour the water from the measuring cylinder into the conical flask (already containing the Sodium Thiosulfate), the amount of water will vary depending on the sample. 6. Draw a cross on a blank piece of paper. 7. Place the conical flash containing the water and Sodium Thiosulfate mixture directly on top of the cross on the paper. 8.

    • Word count: 1100
  5. Throughout Aeschyluss play, Oresteia, the theme of justice arises in the form of revenge. Clytemnestra proves this arising theme by murdering her husband, Agamemnon, to avenge her daughters sacrifice.

    Agamemnon's decision of sacrificing his daughter, Iphigenia is justified by many politically related reasons. Agamemnon knows that in order to be protected by the gods on his journey to war he has to sacrifice his virgin daughter. Agamemnon asks himself, "should I desert the fleet and fail my allies? / sacrifice stops the storm, the blood of a virgin must be spilled..." (11). Agamemnon wants his fleet to be out of harm's way on their war journey, and also wants be seen as a powerful king, with a mighty army that reveals a good ally.

    • Word count: 958
  6. The Odyssey passage analysis: Descent into Hades. The passage is found in Book XI from lines 10 60 and it acts as an introduction to the underworld and is also a crucial phase in the heros journey

    Near the end of passage, Odysseus describes the awakening of the spirits from the netherworld "many men/wounded by bronze spears, who'd died in war,/still in their blood-stained armour" The visual imagery generates a very unpleasant tone towards the atmosphere created in the supernatural realm. It alludes to the Trojan War, and the many soldiers who lost their life. As the passage ends, there is another context of weaponry which signifies the end of Odysseus's descent into the underworld, "And then I drew the sharp sword on my thigh/and sat there, stopping the powerless heads/of all the dead from getting near the blood"(55 - 57)

    • Word count: 1512
  7. How does Homer make the actual description of the storm exciting?

    But when the Trojan heroes reach the place the horror is even bigger than what we are ready for. Only the first sentence contains more than enough to see the high seriousness of the situation. Odysseus' men are "wailing in terror" i.e. all the braveness and manhood are gone and they look more like women or babies. But all this seems to be quite logical when we read the effective description of Charybdis that Homer uses. Adjectives such as "awesome", "fearful" and "dreadful" gives the reader the impression that the ship is doomed to disappear forever. Moreover, Charybdis does not just throw away the water but it "vomits it" and it "rains down" - verbs showing how massive and powerful the whirlpool is.

    • Word count: 606
  8. Odysseus - admirable character

    That is why Odysseus "looks godlike", "enveloped in mist" or "invincible", surrounded by magic. However, not all of the gods like Odysseus. Poseidon, the sea god, tries to prevent him from going back to Ithaca - "he roused the stormy blasts of every wind". No human being would sustain the god's anger, but Odysseus overcomes the storm. Poseidon sends him "mountainous" waves and "tremendous gust"; the power of the god overflows the Trojan hero who is just about to die when Ino, The White Goddess takes pity on him. At the end Poseidon is made to give up and Odysseus is the winner of their fight.

    • Word count: 1156
  9. Pedro Parama Time Line

    'Have you ever heard the moan of a dead man?' 23-24 Pedro's mother's ghost comes to inform about his father's death 'And you mother? Who killed you?' 25-30 Father Renteria does not want to pray for Miguel's death. However, he needs financial support from Pedro Paramo. 30-32 Marie Dyada wants Father Renteria to save Eduviges Dyada who died of sorrow. Father Renteria refused since they are poor. 'Let's leave things as they are. Let us put our hope in God' 32-33 Juan meets Damiana Cisneros from Media Luna.

    • Word count: 1086
  10. Compare the hero of a Greek tragedy with the hero of Dantes Divine Comedy, especially in terms of how they acquire self-knowledge

    On the contrary, in Canto 1 of the Inferno in the Divine Comedy, the author/the protagonist Dante gets lost in the forest of darkness, a symbol of human vice. He is in the dark and perplexed at who he is. Comparing with Oedipus the Greek hero who daringly does his will (he believes human intelligence can compete with God), Dante the Christian hero rather hesitates about himself and thus follows the guide Virgil.

    • Word count: 409
  11. Discuss the Greek concept of hero and Roman concept of hero with evidence from the Odyssey and the Aeneid.

    We can see the evidence in the two works. On the one hand, in the Odyssey, Odysseus constitutes the standard Greek values of heroism: individualism.

    • Word count: 327
  12. Alternative Fuels

    Record the final temperature of the water. 7. Weigh the final weight of the spirit burner and record the mass. 8. Take note of the observations. 9. Repeat the steps 1 - 7 for each liquid fuels For Solid Fuels (Continue from step 6 liquid fuels): 7. Place one of the three nuts onto a needle and weigh it with the needle. Record weigh 8. Place 100cm3 of water in the 250cm3 beaker and record the temperature. 9. Set the nut on fire using the Bunsen burner. 10. Use the burning nut to heat the water as before. 11.

    • Word count: 1878
  13. Inorganic Compounds

    Many sodium and chloride ions are held together this way, resulting in a salt with a distinctive crystal shape. The three-dimensional arrangement or crystal lattice of ions in sodium chloride is such that each Na+ is surrounded by six anions (Cl-) and each Cl-is surrounded by six cations (Na+). Thus the ionic compound has a balance of oppositely charged ions and the total positive and negative charges are equal. Below are diagrams which help to further explain this type of bonding. Sodium Chloride is made and produced by the evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources such as brine wells and salt lakes and by mining rock salt (halite).

    • Word count: 1782
  14. Oedipus The King Summary

    Later on the shepherd thinks about Oedipus and cant cope that he has done what he has been asked. So the Sheppard goes back up and saves Oedipus. While talking to another Sheppard, the Sheppard finds out that King Polybus and Queen Merope of Corinth were wanting a child but couldn't have one. So the shephard tells the shepard from Corinth his situation. The shephard takes Oedipus to Corinth and gives him to Polybus and Merope.

    • Word count: 605
  15. Why might excessive pride be taken as a heroic characteristic in Aeschylus Prometheus Bound?

    Therefore, his actions are viewed as not only excessive pride to the god but also heroic feature to men. On the one hand, we know that in ancient world, the hero out of pride usually tends to be against the superior tyrannical authority; his rebellion or even merely over-confidence leads to his downfall.

    • Word count: 338
  16. Determination of the Partition Coefficient of Ethanoic Acid between Water and Butan-1-ol

    3. The funnel was stoppered and shook vigorously for 1 to 2 minutes. The tap was opened occasionally to release pressure in the funnel. 4. 20 cm3 of each layer was separated approximately into two beakers respectively. The fraction near the junction of the two layers was discarded. 5. 10 cm3 of the aqueous layer was pipetted into a conical flask and it was then titrated with 0.1000 M sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein. 6. 10 cm3 of the alcohol layer was pipetted into a conical flask using another pipette.

    • Word count: 1119
  17. Analysis of Chlorine in Commercial Bleaching Solutions

    Label the flask. h. Wash a burette with distilled water and then with standard sodium hypochlorite solution. i. Pour the sodium hypochlorite solution into the burette and ensure the tip of burette is filled. j. Record the initial burette reading. k. Pipette 25.0 cm3 of the diluted bleach into a conical flask. l. Add 10 cm3 of KI solution and 10 cm3 of 1 M sulphuric acid into the flask. m. Run the solution from the burette into the conical flask, swirling the flask all the time.

    • Word count: 832
  18. Determination of Chlorine and Iodine in Water

    Procedure: The buret was filled with sodium thiosulfate, using a funnel to pour the solution. Underneath the buret 25mL of KIO was placed into a 250 mL beaker the exact volume was obtained by using a volumetric pipette then 50 mL of deionized water and .5 grams of KI were added and mixed together. 2 mL of glacial acetic was added and the solution turned yellow and was then titrated until the color was almost gone. 1 mL of starch was then added, this turned the solution blue to further reveal the un-reacted iodine and it was titrated until the blue disappeared and all the iodine reacted.

    • Word count: 1119
  19. Determining Freezing Point Depression Constant for Acetic Acid

    At the freezing point of pure solution there was a equilibrium of molecules joining and detaching from the solid but when a solute is added to the solution in the crystals remain as pure solvent so the solute cannot join. The solute comes into to contact with the crystal because it is part of the solution. When the solute is added the solvent cannot come into contact with the crystals and join the solid as fast as before because of the presence of the solute.

    • Word count: 1126
  20. Don Quixote

    This character is actually mentally sound and he is a character who was built by the author, as a way of portraying the Spanish society in the era of sixteenth century. The text is full of quaint humor, and the author uses this in advancing his plot and the themes, which on the other hand comes out from Don Quixote. Don Quixote depicts renaissance in reality and tries to satirize the middle ages chivalric traditions by depicting them as absurd and archaic.

    • Word count: 921
  21. Beowulf, the title character of the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, is a classic epic hero, a mythological or legendary figure, a brave, self-sacrificing, illustrious warrior and king

    Strength and physical appearance are essential to the Anglo-Saxon warrior. Beowulf is described as the one "with the strength of thirty in the grip of each hand" (1188), and when he first arrives in the land of the Danes, the coastguard sees the mighty hero and says, "Nor have I seen a mightier man- at- arms on this earth than the one standing here" (1185). He is strong enough to kill the monster Grendel, who has been terrorizing the Danes for twelve years, with his bare hands by ripping off his arm.

    • Word count: 727
  22. In Euripdes Play Medea

    While it is hard, especially from a modern perspective, to in any way justify these acts, one can also see that she does not commit these crimes for no reason, she doesn't kill randomly and at no point in the play does Medea suggest she takes pleasure in the act of ending a life. It seems that instead she behaves as she feels she must to do what is necessary even if that involves killing those who oppose or harm her.

    • Word count: 1229
  23. The role and status of woman in Spartan society.

    It is in this sense that the woman held if not the most powerful position in Sparta, without them their way of life, regulation and control would not be able to exist or continue in existence. 'Wife sharing' is just one of the processes that illustrates child bearing as being a primary goal of woman as expected in society. If a man did not desire to be married, but wished to have an heir a married woman could if she wished conceive his child.

    • Word count: 857
  24. Assess the respective contributions of Athens and Sparta and other Greeks to Greek victory over Persia in 480-79 B.C.

    Athens could be seen as the major contributor in terms of naval contribution. Themistocles persuaded the Athenians to use the new silver found at Laurium to build a great fleet instead of distributing it amongst themselves. (VII. 144) The Greek fleet was a key component to the Greeks victories over Persia at sea as the Athenians provided the Greek Navy with about half of the total ships they had. The fact that the Persian navy was beaten also meant that the invasion was slowly beginning to lose momentum as the navy provided support to the land forces and guarded supply ships crossing the Aegean. Without it, the land force was on its own.

    • Word count: 1496
  25. Free essay

    Assess the role that women play in The Odyssey

    This proves she is a good mother as she has raised this boy, with no father figure around and with all the troubles that have fallen on them. She also cares dearly for Telemachus and is heartbroken when she finds out that he has left to find out more information about his father, then when he returns home in Book VII, she is overcome with tears of joy and possibly relief that he has returned safely. Despite this, she does not stop Telemachus go on his journey which is key to his development as a character, and ensures that he will come of age and has matured in time for his father's return and the dealing of the Suitors.

    • Word count: 1466

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