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AS and A Level: Classics

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  1. Classical studies

    Firstly it had to be a safe place for people to visit and stay for periods of time. Many revolutionary safety devices were designed and attached to the Colosseum, such as the podiums that were built with top rollers that prevented the wild animals and convicts from climbing on top and into the crowd. There is also the design of the exterior to consider. Despite the main activity going on inside the theatre, the design of the outside was equally if not more important. What it outwardly showed was very important to the Romans. The games were responsible for ridding the city of criminals and dangerous animals, it had to symbolise great power and splendour.

    • Word count: 1222
  2. How far was Plato's perception of rhetoric a consistent one?

    It was not surprising that, with the arrival of democracy, rhetoric was considered an indispensable art in the education of the young men of Athens so that they could better themselves through their performance in the assembly. Athenian man became as interested in the art of public speaking as in sports and other leisure activities. For example, in Aristophanes Wasps, Procleon has blind faith in the court system, but even fashionable Anticleon knows the workings of rhetoric well enough to turn it into a game.

    • Word count: 3177
  3. What was the function of hadrians wall

    Trajan to link certain existing forts together- so possibly the Wall acted to protect this road which would have been important for the movement of troops and supplies along it. The wall would have been needed as at the time it was built the tribes North of where the Wall is situated were rebelling and were therefore a threat to the Romanised South. There is also archaeological evidence to suggest that the wall was built to defend from attacks from the North, all of the defences are North facing and in the majority of cases the main buildings within the

    • Word count: 2353
  4. Free essay

    TMA 03 - Classical Studies

    To ensure the colosseum was safe and firm, eighty walls surrounded the area and supported vaults - which were extraordinarily strong - for the passageways, the stairways and the tiers of seats. Although people on the upper most tiers were quite a way from the arena, the continuous rows of seating gave an unobstructed view. The three tiers of arcades are fronted by columns and entablatures. Arranged in a logical sense of Doric on in the first storey, Ionic on the second story and Corinthian in the third.

    • Word count: 1256
  5. jane austin

    The courts must then ask whether the defendant was the legal cause of the victims death; causation in law. The conduct of the defendant may not be the sole cause of the death but be deemed a substantial and operating cause. The courts may view this question as one of morality, for example can the death be rightly blamed upon the accused? In the case of Pagett the accused was trying to escape armed police and used his girlfriend as a shield as he fired at them, the police returned fire killing the woman.

    • Word count: 1772
  6. How far should Oedipus as represented in the Oedipus Rex be regarded as an insolent tyrant who not only deserved but aggravated his own fate?

    The gods have seemingly been conspiring against him since before he was born for him to have such a terrible fate. However, he is guilty of aggravating his fate, continually damming himself in his speeches and continually pushing people such as the Oracle and the Shepard, who do not want to give up their information because of fear of what might happen if they do. The phrase 'insolent tyrant' is going too far as he clearly wants to help his people and in the end leaving the city making a big sacrifice in order to help his people rid themselves of the plague.

    • Word count: 1473
  7. To what extent do you agree that Phaedra and Hippolytus are in control of there own destiny in the 'Hippolytus'?

    However, as we'll see the answer is not that simple, as Hippolytus has ultimately brought this fate upon himself due to his obsession with purity and his scorning of Aphrodite. Phaedra has a lot less control over her own destiny with her original feelings for Hippolytus being cause by Aphrodite and the revealing of these feelings being constructed by the 'Nurses' character which ultimately leads to the situation were she believes the only solution is to kill herself and to vilify Hippolytus in the process in order to maintain her dignity.

    • Word count: 1416
  8. Compare the portrayal of Dido in the Aeneid to that of Calypso, Circe and Nausicaa in the Odysseys. Which figure creates the most pity in the reader?

    and the fact these relationships have to be discontinued or unexplored seems unfair to the so called 'temptresses' and therefore causes the reader to evoke sympathy for the characters. These women, although play identical roles, are in very different circumstance and are very different characters and therefore the level of sympathy we feel for them varies and I believe it is fair to say that it is Dido we feel the most sympathy for: An important feature of why we feel so much sympathy for Dido is the fact we learn so much of her background.

    • Word count: 1037
  9. How far is it possible to explain the differences between the Parthenon and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia?

    The capital of the Ionic column has attribute paired scrolling volutes that are laid on the moulded cap of the column, or leap from within it. Even back then antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle correlation between the curvature of the stylobate, the taper of the naos walls and the entasis of the columns. The stylobate is the platform on which the columns stand. It curves upwards slightly. Entasis refers to the slight tapering of the columns as they rise, to counter the optical effect of looking up at the temple.

    • Word count: 2366
  10. "Justice is a theme of all great literature" Is justice more important in the Odyssey or the Aeneid?

    The Aeneid opens however and we're told that the poem is based on the founding of Rome and the main string of 'justice' seems to be coming from one scorned goddess, who simply doesn't want her favourite city to be destroyed. The balance she tries to restore is simply an act of revenge rather than actual justice, and rather than convincing the other gods it's the right thing to do, she simply bribes Aeolus. Justice is however looked upon a little while later as Venus goes to Jupiter and asks why the Trojans are being made to suffer after doing nothing wrong.

    • Word count: 1181
  11. A103_TMA03 Classical Studies

    Whereas safety, space and visibility relate to the construction of the Colosseum, there is also the design to consider. Though the main activity went on inside the theatre, the design of the outside was very important. What it outwardly conveyed was important to the Romans. As the games were responsible of cleansing the city of criminals and dangerous beasts, it had to symbolise great power and splendour. The grand scale of the Colosseum was impressive but not overpowering, it was important that it was welcoming but large enough to entertain audiences in there thousands.

    • Word count: 1250
  12. history classics

    a Roman general and consul. By reading the works of Claudian, I get the idea that Stilicho was a very famous general who achieved lots for his country; Claudian sums up these achievements, 'Shall I relate how Latium flourishes, how Africa has returned to her allegiance and service, how Spain knows no more the Moor as her neighbour, how Gaul has now nought to fear from a disarmed Germany?'3. Stilicho had driven back both the Moors in North Africa, as well as the 'barbarians' in Germany.

    • Word count: 3286
  13. Were coins used in the Roman Empire more for propaganda purposes or as a monetary means? Examples of how coins were used during Neros reign and how some literary sources link to them.

    These achievements included famous victories in battle or personal events such as marriages within the imperial family. Coins minted in the time of the Emperor Nero, the fifth and last of the Julio-Claudian emperors who ruled from 54 to 68 AD, are a key example of the use of propaganda. If we examine some of his coins we can get a sense of his power and how he was portrayed. Many of his coins show that he liked to be portrayed as powerful, as he is depicted wearing his armour, showing his importance as a figure in battle.

    • Word count: 2433
  14. Free essay

    Gods in Homer are used for comic effect where as the gods in Virgil have a more serious role. Discuss.

    Venus knows that Juno is just trying to keep the Trojans from going to Italy but she lets the plan go ahead anyway, perhaps because she wants to see the result of the change to plan. The gods seem further more serious in the Odyssey for the reason that, after Calypso has released Odysseus; they are all, apart from Poseidon, willing to get Odysseus back home to appease the fates. This means that they are performing a serious purpose. Zeus too at one point, like Poseidon, tries to hinder Odysseus.

    • Word count: 901
  15. Free essay

    In which of the two epics are the female characters more carefully described and more relevant to the narratives? [The Odyssey and The Aeneid]

    Much longer, and she would've probably been Odysseus's absolute puppet master. Calypso is important to the narrative because she's the first person we see in contact with Odysseus. She helps to give us our first impression of him. This impression shows Odysseus to be heroic in his longing to get home. Calypso is a divine character, and she is described as such; when the Giant-killer arrives at her home, she is "singing with her beautiful voice", but when Hermes tells her she is to let Odysseus leave, her personality quickly changes, and she becomes very upset at the prospect.

    • Word count: 1835
  16. Similes in the Odyssey: Books 5-7

    This would have helped the Greek audiences understand the fate of Kalypso, by comparing it to a common image many of the Greeks would have witnessed. Homer also uses a simile to portray the fate of Odysseus' raft. Odysseus has to endure Poseidon's anger as he tosses his raft "about the current now here, now there;/as the North Wind in autumn tumbles and tosses thistledown along the plain, and the bunches hold fast one on another,/so the winds tossed her on the great sea , now here, now there/and now it would be South Wind that push her between/them,/and then again East Wind and West would burst in and follow".

    • Word count: 1057
  17. Odysseus' Disguised Return

    Odysseus' multitude of tests starts with his entrusting Eurycleia with the secret of his return. When Odysseus returns to Ithaca disguised as an itinerant beggar, Penelope takes him in, and subsequently Eurycleia recognizes Odysseus by a scar on his foot. Eurycleia is the first to find out about Odysseus' return, and notifies Penelope when Odysseus tells her that the time is right. Homer has Eurycleia find out first because she is the epitome of loyalty - she has been with Odysseus' family for years, and is obviously someone whom Odysseus can trust with his secret.

    • Word count: 747
  18. The Moving Image

    Soon after Homer arrives announcing that he loves her and wants her to come home to her family. It works; she comes out of the car and goes home. After a long think she decided she needs a break to get away from everything for a short while, she needed to clear her mind. So the next day she goes away for a while, and leaves the rest of the family behind. Bart and Lisa went to stay with their aunties, whereas Maggie is left with Homer. During the short period of time when Homer was responsible for Maggie, he manages to lose her!

    • Word count: 2116
  19. In this essay, I will explore the ways in which women are portrayed in the play The Medea written by Euripides.

    She is given a role slightly unusual for a woman. From the details and her use of language, we can see that she is educated and looks at the bigger picture and carefully analyses them, like men do. In this play, Euripides has given women a slightly more high status in society.

    • Word count: 459
  20. The role of the Chorus in The Medea

    They pity and sympathize with her because they are both women and they both, as women, share the suffering of the injustices of women, this establishes a bond between them as is shown on lines , the phrases "" Already shows the empathy between Medea and the Chorus of women, their sympathy leads the audiences to interpret the play leading to their sympathy and the acceptance of Medea taking revenge on being the victim of her husband's betrayal to another woman.

    • Word count: 507
  21. Select one important episode/figure (human or divine) from The Odyssey and show what contribution it makes to the poem as a whole.

    She has been described in relation to her actions in The Odyssey towards Odysseus as, "the goddess of success" 1 This can be shown through Odysseus' voyage home and the help he receives from Athene, we see that she has power over the Gods, as well as respect, and a great power with mortals. Athene is known throughout Homer's epic as the 'Goddess of flashing eyes' where he uses repetition to remind the listener of the character's traits. This description suggests intelligence and an all-knowing and seeing being, however it also expresses the cunning that Athene displays constantly throughout The Odyssey.

    • Word count: 2439
  22. Overall how good is the movie troy?

    Wolfgang Petersen knows how to direct an epic film, and now Troy makes him the undisputed king of epics. Troy is one of the most impressive looking films I've ever seen. It was filmed in Mexico with about five hundred extras, which makes how authentic it looks even grander. Troy has two distinct tones; it's a love story between Paris and Helen (as well as Achilles and Briseis) and a war story. Petersen takes a movie that is so clearly multidimensional, and combines the different stories flawlessly. Troy really succeeded at entertaining me, and truly curiosity about the time period.

    • Word count: 1822
  23. Breaking the code of XENIA is a crime with serious consequences

    so after he learns that he is the son of Odysseus, which culminates in him receiving the assistance of his son Peisistratos and a horse to aid him on his visit to Sparta. This serves as a good example of the duties which are covered by Xenia, as every need of Telemachos is met by Nestor as best as possible. However, the two also share another bond; that Nestor fought alongside Odysseus in Troy. It is due to this particular bond that Nestor can advise Telemachos in his quest.

    • Word count: 926
  24. An examination of why lines 370- 447 form a key passage in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex

    This originality was and still is the reason behind the success of this play. This essay examines the character development of the protagonist, and the motif of ignorance and dramatic irony that it surfaces. This passage is a turning point in the audience's view of Oedipus' character, and foreshadows his approaching downfall. When Teiresias states that 'Oedipus will not forget [his] insults... when all men throw the same at [him] (372-373), it foretells the fact that the King would be treated the same way in the future as he treats the prophet in the present.

    • Word count: 1599
  25. Social Historical Background - Antigone

    Comedies joked about the gods and intellectuals, albeit in a respectful manner. The theatre in ancient Athens had the ability to teach moral lessons, inform of contemporary issues or amuse. It was a powerful tool and was used by governments/polis to influence people's opinions and keep their populations up to date with current affairs. For this reason the government encouraged all men to go to the theatre. Those who could not afford to go were even offered free grants. "Antigone" was aimed at an Athenian audience. The play showed the downfall of man and highlighted how bad Thebes was.

    • Word count: 1708

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