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# The Effect of Reactant Concentration on the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

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Introduction

The Effect of Reactant Concentration on the Rate of a Chemical Reaction By Shazan Pestonji, Chun Kit Lam & Jonathan Ng Objective: To investigate how changes in the concentration of a reactand affects the rate of a particular chemical reaction. Hypothesis: The greater the concentration of the reactants the faster the rate of chemical reaction will occur, where as solutions which are diluted with other substances will require a longer reaction time. Equipment & materials: * Beaker * Stop Watch * 500 ml measuring cylinder * Cross on a piece of paper * Conical Flask * 30 mL of Hydrochloric acid (2M HCL) * 135 mL of Sodium Thiosulfate (NA2S2O) * 100 mL of Water Method: 1. Collect Equipment and Materials stated above. 2. Collect the total amount of Sodium Thiosulfate (135mL) and water (100ml) required for all the experiments. Each sample will need to have 50 mL of mixture in the conical flask at any time. Thus the amount of water and Na2S2O will be varied to make up this amount. ...read more.

Middle

Results: We observed that when the HCL was added into the conical flask that a murky perception formed in the solution thus the clear solution turned unclear. This can be explained by the following chemical reaction taking place; 2HCL (aq) + Na2S2O (aq) --> S(s) + SO2 (g) + H2O The table below captures the results we obtained; Table 1 Sample 2M HCL Amount of Na2S2O Amount of H2O Concentration of Na2S2O Time mL mL mL M Sec 1 5 45 0 0.225 15.37 2 5 35 10 0.175 15.40 3 5 25 20 0.125 25.06 4 5 15 30 0.075 39.25 5 5 5 40 0.025 169.86 Graph 1 Graph 2 Discussion: By collecting the results from the investigation we were able to come to a conclusion on the affects of varying the amount of Na2S2O and water has on the reaction of a solution. Graph 1 and Table 1 above shows the amount of Na2S2O and the amount of water in each sample. ...read more.

Conclusion

If in future tests, this gas was trapped inside the flask with the use of a stopper the reaction may have completed faster. * Reducing human error: Starting the timer at the same time in all the reactions would have helped to increase the accuracy of the results. The timer should have been started either once the full amount of HCL was transferred in the conical flask or should have started when the pouring started. * Another variable which could have been controlled was the number of times the conical flask was swirled after the HCL was added. This would have further helped with the accuracy of the data if all the samples were swirled at the same speed and the same number of times. * Using distilled water: this would ensure that the water is pure * There might have also been errors with reading the scales on the measuring cylinder as we were reading these to the best of our ability. To be certain that the exact amount of solution was added an electronic weighing scale could have been used. ...read more.

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