AS and A Level: Computer Science

Meet the team of inpirational teachers who mark our essays

find out about the team

Join Marked by Teachers to get help from over 80 teachers and 180,000 essays

512 AS and A Level Computer Science essays

  • Marked by Teachers essays 11
  • Peer Reviewed essays 10
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 21
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compilers and Interpreters

    5 star(s)

    Once the compilation process has been completed, the object code will run much faster than the same interpreted code. And the program only has to compile the code once. * Object code does not need the compiler to actually run it, only to convert it from source code to object code. Therefore, the object code produced by a compiler can be distributed to other computers without the compiler. One could write a program and then sell the object code on CD to anyone who wants to run the application. * Object code is difficult to 'read' so that it can be distributed without actually revealing the code.

    • Essay length: 3673 words
  2. Marked by a teacher

    An introduction to Identity Theft

    4 star(s)

    * Business and commercial identity theft - used for obtaining financial services, charges against assets and obtaining goods. * Criminal Fraud - Using another's identity when held responsible for a crime. * Offences against the government e.g. benefit fraud and tax evasion. Prevalence & Statistics I.T. availability and understanding grows amongst the world's population as does the increase of Identity Theft. Those who perpetrate this crime constantly invent new ways of obtaining the victims personal and private information. In June 2005 http://www.identitytheftspy.com reported that its study returned that 13% of all internet users had stated that they or a member of their household had been the victim of identity theft.

    • Essay length: 2563 words
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Designing a data system for a vintage clothes business.

    3 star(s)

    Luki currently offers these designs off her Facebook, Tumblr, twitter and website page. Luki runs a team consisting of a photographer, two male models and two female models who all are her closest friends. Sheâs named this group âThe House of Sharpsâ and has plans to expand in the near future. Luki works alone doing the designing, printing and general creation of her products but she sells the clothes through her friends. Luki would like a new system, as her current system is unorganised and is recorded simply through writing. Her business is not very big so she would like a system for when she expands she can stay organised.

    • Essay length: 2398 words
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Business & IT Department BTEC. Organisational System Security - Describe the various types of threats to organisations, systems and data

    3 star(s)

    Such as: 1. Natural Disasters: This refers to what happens when data is lost as a result of natural disasters such as earth-quakes, floods, tsunami's, terrorists, fires and such. 2. Malicious Damage: This covers data that is lost, damaged, or stolen as a result of a hacker of some sort. A hacker can implant a virus onto a system in order to damage the system or simply steal data such as credit card data. 3. Technical Failure: Technical Failure covers when devices fail abruptly such a servers going down, power supply failing, hard-drives crashing ect.

    • Essay length: 1389 words
  5. Marked by a teacher

    LAN & Topologies & Data Flow

    3 star(s)

    The computer need to be switched on as well, this will allow the computer to send broadcast message to the computer. Gateway - It is a network point which allows you to enter another network. Gateway also allows you to connect LAN or a WLAN to the internet or another WAN. The main role of a gateway is to convert protocols among communications networks. This means that if a computer receives a packet from Apple Talk the gateway will then convert to any format which it needs to send it to whether it is a TCP/IP, OSI or other.

    • Essay length: 2405 words
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Memory Managment Operating Systems

    3 star(s)

    1. Relocation of memory 2. Allocation of memory 3. Protection of memory 4. Sharing of memory 5. Logical organisation of memory 6. Physical organisation of memory Address Binding Address binding is the process in which the memory management can link two different types of storage of data so a programme can be compiled or executed. To start, an item can have two differing forms of location storage. Firstly a physical address, this is the direct location on which a file is stored on to a hard disk drive or a external storage device, this is also known as a root directory. Secondly, the logical address is the sector/location in which partial files are stored in the memory.

    • Essay length: 1301 words
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Utility Programs and Macros

    Copying files, either from application to application, or within the same application. (Web browsers, word processors) 4) Copying discs 5) Renaming files 6) Backing up files, and also creating OS backups. (Time machine (Mac OSx), Windows Backup) 7) Running a file search in large files or directories Some other major tasks which operating systems often, but not always provide are: 1) File and Disc repair [Check disk, Defragmenter, Disk utility (Mac OSx)] 2)

    • Essay length: 454 words
  8. Marked by a teacher

    Open Source Software and its benefits for a country like Nepal.

    That is how I got involved into it. In the seminar within, I was conned about the importance of Open Software to poor people like we Nepalese. I then knew that it was a kind of lottery like to us because we shouldn't have to pay even a single coin for the softwares which were so designed that they could be used to do any kind of works as the closed softwares like Windows and others do. Open Software have very big benefit especially in a country like Nepal.

    • Essay length: 1071 words
  9. Marked by a teacher

    Case Study. LEGAL ISSUES-: Data Protection Act. Whiteman Leisure must ensure that the information that they are dealing with, must be fully protected from unauthorized access

    organization Another factor in which WLC should take into consideration is to query the property of the specific data that theyâre going to handle, (such as the customerâs personal details). This is important as the customer may grant WLC to transfer their information to any other third party organizations, however if the member does not allow the go ahead, WLC have to keep the data safely stored, therefore the querying with the customers carry a great importance. Thirdly, if there is a situation in which a hacker should wish to break into WLCâs Network to try and attempt to obtain data unlawfully, WLC will need to be trained and fully prepared if such unexpected crisis occurs within their organization.

    • Essay length: 1139 words
  10. Peer reviewed

    Equipment needed for a Graphic PC

    4 star(s)

    5. Hard drive The hard drive is needed to store images on the computer. A graphics PC needs a relatively big hard drive to store all the images. You would need at least 500 GB. 6. Graphic tablet A graphics tablet is a computer input device that lets the user to hand-draw pictures. They would need this for a Graphic PC because it allows you to draw something easier than using the mouse to draw something. A graphics Tablet consists of a pen and a board, similar to a pencil and paper. 7. Printers A printer allows you to print out images that are on your PC.

    • Essay length: 1832 words
  11. Peer reviewed

    information systems assignment 2

    4 star(s)

    The ICO maintains guidance relating to the Act. The Act defines eight principles of information-handling practice. The UK Data Protection Act is a large Act that has a reputation for complexity While the basic principles are honoured for protecting privacy, interpreting the act is not always simple. Many companies, organisations and individuals seem very unsure of the aims, content and principles of the DPA. Some hide behind the Act and refuse to provide even very basic, publicly available material quoting the Act as a restriction The act also impacts on the way in which organisations conduct business in terms of who can be contacted for marketing purposes, not only by telephone and direct mail, but also electronically and has led to the development of permission based marketing strategies.

    • Essay length: 4456 words
  12. Peer reviewed

    Why its important to have protocols and standards on a network

    3 star(s)

    This is the same for Internet protocols. If one computer wants to talk to another then they would need to understand the same protocol. So basically Protocols are the rules that allow communication between two or more computers. The main internet protocols are; HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocols) HTTP helps us display webpages. If the computer did not know this protocol, then you would not be able to view the webpage because the computer would not understand the code used and so it would be unable to display the webpage.

    • Essay length: 404 words
  13. Peer reviewed

    Networking Diagrams and Case Study

    3 star(s)

    Star Network â One of the most common network topologies. A star network has one central switch/hub/computer, which sends messages to all the other connected nodes. 9. VPN â A Virtual Private Network is a secure network that can be accessed from anywhere. E.g. LJBC school portal network can be directly accessed from school and then if you enter your school username/password from home on the portal page you can also access it. B) OSI layers: 1. Work Station â N/A 2. IP Address â Layer 3 Network Layer 3.

    • Essay length: 2009 words
  14. Peer reviewed

    Compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of bitmap and vector image types.

    3 star(s)

    The main advantage of a bitmap is that it can be accessed sooner through the internet when you have the proper size. The accuracy is very high when displaying image information including the shadings and the other complex and smooth places. Another advantage is that it can be used as a universal format. Most of the Bitmap graphics are not proprietary.

    • Essay length: 646 words
  15. Peer reviewed

    HCI shortened for Human Computer Interaction is the study of the human and computer and the way they interact. The interaction between human, whom may be referred to as users and the computer occurs at the users interface

    3 star(s)

    However, as great as EBay is and with all the great features about as to how it creates a marketplace for people, many people use EBay as a form of fraud and deceit to people that are gullible enough, a recent example of this is on the 7th of April 2010, when the Romanian police arrested 70 cyber crooks, whom were thought to be members of the gangs which allegedly used compromised EBay accounts to run scams. They simply obtained login credentials using phishing scams before using these trusted profiles to tout auctions for non-existent luxury goods (luxury cars, Rolex watches and even a recreational aircraft).

    • Essay length: 2644 words
  16. Peer reviewed

    Operating systems. In this article, we are going to make a comparison between Mac and the Windows operating systems. First, lets us see that how a common user can differentiate these two operating systems.

    3 star(s)

    No business edition, no premium edition. · Costs less in the long run. Most of Mac upgrades cost less than those of Windows OS Disadvantages of Mac over Windows: · Smaller software library · Low user familiarity with the interface · Cost can rise if not used for a larger amount of time. Now let us peep into the technical details about these operating systems. Describing MAC Operating System: Mac uses an open-source kernel called XNU. This XNU kernel is in fact a conglomeration of the BSD and Mach Kernel's that use POSIX system calls.

    • Essay length: 1048 words
  17. Peer reviewed

    Organisational system security - The possible security issues which exist within the FilmPoster.com system

    3 star(s)

    Phishing attackers; will attack filmposters.com website to acquire sensitive information such as customer's usernames, passwords and credit card details, they would attack the website by using techniques such as Link manipulations method a form of a technical deception designed to make a link in an email and the spoofed websites that leads to the phisher. The link may appear to belong to film posters but leads t the phishers site. The other technique is phone phishing. Attackers that call customers claiming to be from film posters, for example an attacker can call a customer claiming to be calling from film

    • Essay length: 1291 words
  18. Peer reviewed

    Principles of Computer Networks

    3 star(s)

    Infrared technology has been extended to allow more than two computers to be connected semi permanent networks. The advantage of a LAN is that the same physical communication path can be shared by multiple devices. For example it there is a printer, a computer and the internet connection the LAN will allow connections to the printer and it will also allow connections to the internet. If a software is loaded onto the file server that all the computers on the network can use it. There are quite a few drawbacks of a LAN network. For example security measures need to be taken so that users cannot access unauthorised areas. It is quite hard to setup the network.

    • Essay length: 4762 words
  19. Peer reviewed

    Data privacy is the relationship between collection and distribution of data and the public expectation of privacy and the legal issues surrounding them. There are many policies and ordinance that protect our data, but the big question is who is in contro

    3 star(s)

    Privacy issues arise wherever personally restricted information is collected and stored. In this 21st century, most of us use databases to store information, and make our life easier. Data privacy issues can arise in response to information from a wide range of sources, such as: Hospitals storing health records, social networking sites like Face book, introduction of biometrics, identity cards and internet databases. Databases provide us with many benefits. They make our life easier; they are less time-consuming and also quite cheap in the longer run.

    • Essay length: 698 words
  20. The Seven Domains of IT Infrastructure

    By giving out such information can cause computer viruses and infections executed by social engineers. Another way in which the User Domain can fall susceptible to attackers is the activities carried out by individuals on the computer. Visiting dangerous websites, downloading malicious files, and installing infected programs all give invitations to attackers to hack computer systems. In addition, inserting infected jump drives into computers can cause an entire computer network to become infected. Malware can infect a computer if measures aren't taken to keep its workstation updated.

    • Essay length: 691 words
  21. Information Technology:Programming. A record is a collection of related data which is stored in a field and treated as a single entity for processing.

    Transaction file is a temporary file used to update the master file at a specific period e.g at the end of a week.It updates the master file.The records of transaction file perform 3 main operation Add:a record to master file Update change the content of the records or fields in master file Delete:remove a record from the master file. Transaction log or change file is a file that keeps track of the changes to the transaction file SERIAL AND SEQUENTIAL FILE ORGANISATION In Serial File Organization records are rearranged one after another in the order in which they were added.NB:The records are not sort in any particular order.

    • Essay length: 990 words
  22. Explain sequence, selection and iteration as used in computer programming; outline the benefits of having a variety of data types available to the programmer.

    The lines of code are number from 1 to 9 to show that each line is executed in order: Example of a Sequence Control Structure in Visual Basic 1. Dim Num(2) As Integer 2. Console.WriteLine("Hello user, welcome to the program.") 3. Console.WriteLine("Enter your first number: ") 4. Num(0) = Console.ReadLine() 5. Console.WriteLine("Enter your second number: ") 6. Num(1) = Console.ReadLine() 7. Num(2) = Num(0) + Num(1) 8. Console.WriteLine("These two numbers equal: " & Num(2)) 9. Console.ReadLine() In this example, the program does the following: * Three integer variables called Num(0), Num(1)

    • Essay length: 1572 words
  23. Explain sequence, selection and iteration as used in computer programming; outline the benefits of having a variety of data types available to the programmer.

    Whole numbers we use when we don't require calculations to be too precise, such as scientific equations, so we need to make sure of this before we publish the program. Depending on how large we want our integers to go up to, or how efficient we want to be with our program's RAM use, we can choose to use bytes, integers, or longs (otherwise called long integers). Bytes have a range of 256 units, whereas long integers have a range of 4,294,967,296 units.

    • Essay length: 1697 words
  24. Influential Factors in Choosing a Programming Language

    for that one language. (M Fishpool, 2007, p.156) To deviate to using another language may in that instance not make sense to the hierarchy of the organisation. This may ring particularly true if the organisation has established a relationship with a particular vendor, such as Microsoft. Maintaining a link with this company may be rewarded with better support and discounts. (Anderson, 2010, p.166) On the other hand, maintaining the use of a particular piece of software (such as Microsoft's IDE Visual Studio) would limit language choice to those that suit that company's interests.

    • Essay length: 1497 words
  25. Report Outlining each stage of the project development. Creation of a Web Presentation for the college.

    Creation of a Website: This website would shows all Departments; at least one division of which would show all the courses offered. The site would fit the purpose for which it was designed using of a wide variety of techniques and showing accuracy in its content, construction and organization. The site would give an accurate impression of what a full site would look like. It must include: * An introductory page (this may be the home page or could be separate) * A page on each department of the college indicating sub divisions (eg Business - ICT/Travel & Tourism/Business Studies)

    • Essay length: 781 words
"

As an industry IT is a significant employer worldwide and Computing is a key foundation in pursuing a related career. At A level Computing involves the study of a range of topics, from memory and storage to how microprocessors work, from systems architecture to programming and logic. There is a distinctive practical programming element to the course and you may be creating apps, websites or other types of creative coding solutions.

Whilst part of the course will be practically examined the majority will be assessed in examinations. You can gain valuable skills by accessing the Marked by Teachers Computing section which contains a wide variety of essay examples to help you master the essay skills required.

Computing does tend to sit well with Maths and Further Maths as other A level optionsbut Economics and Physics are also favoured subject combinations. As a successful Computing Alevel student you'll find your qualification highly favoured by Computer Science departments at University.

"

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Neurophysiology - Discuss the roles of development learning and evolution in the construction of the nervous system

    "Conclusions The roles played by each factor described here each have their own specific effect on the construction of the nervous system. The evolutionary aspect controls the "blueprints" of the nervous systems that are hard coded into the DNA of the animal. However it is not specifically the genetic makeup of the nervous system that natural selection acts against, rather the phenotype of the nervous system, which is the combination of the developmental and the learning factors. The evolutionary factors alter the genotype, the only source of variation that can be passed down to their offspring. The development can only attempt to recreate the layout as specified by the different alleles; it cannot exceed them in terms of functionality. The true source of variation depends on the extrinsic information obtained and stored in memory, but that us not able to cross generations (with the exception of tradition) and so could be an explanation for the high evolutionary conservation of the nervous system."

  • Discuss the roles of development learning and evolution in the construction of the nervous system

    "Conclusions The roles played by each factor described here each have their own specific effect on the construction of the nervous system. The evolutionary aspect controls the "blueprints" of the nervous systems that are hard coded into the DNA of the animal. However it is not specifically the genetic makeup of the nervous system that natural selection acts against, rather the phenotype of the nervous system, which is the combination of the developmental and the learning factors. The evolutionary factors alter the genotype, the only source of variation that can be passed down to their offspring. The development can only attempt to recreate the layout as specified by the different alleles; it cannot exceed them in terms of functionality. The true source of variation depends on the extrinsic information obtained and stored in memory, but that us not able to cross generations (with the exception of tradition) and so could be an explanation for the high evolutionary conservation of the nervous system."

  • Discuss the relationship that exists in the UK between the legal rules that govern directors' duties and principles of corporate governance.

    "The UK's approach to governance is a self regulatory approach unlike the US legislative approach. Brussels have looked into creating a European corporate governance code however they came to the conclusion it was not necessary and agreed that the European Union should create a common approach which would coordinate national corporate governance codes. If legislation is brought in it would defeat the point of corporate governance as it would cause restrictions on a company rather than the flexibility provided by The Combined Code. It is said that companies who follow a code of corporate governance have a more stable price/earnings ratio this is due to the management of their financial assets, the code helps them manage their assets more efficiently and so they are seen as more stable companies in which to invest. This in turn creates a confidence in investors who are willing to support the development of their company as they have faith in their investment due to the guidelines the company follows set by The Combined Code."

Marked by a teacher

This essay has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the essay.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the essay page.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review under the essay preview on this page.