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AS and A Level: Computer Science
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However they were not very similar in appearance to the CD's we are familiar with today. When the compact disc was finally released, the decision was made that it was to contain approximately 75 minutes of playing time as this is about the same performance time as Beethoven's 9th symphony. The clear polycarbonate material used to make a CD is drawn out to just over a millimetre thick, making the CD's diameter to width ratio 100:1. I said earlier that the CD shared its practical property with the Floppy Disk. However, it also shares a characteristic with another form of sound production, the LP Record.
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What are Internet Business models? Give examples of them. Outline how they might be used and their limitations.
It creates value through providing client for a fee, and advertising. Examples are Salon.com, TheStreet.com. On-line service provider. It provides service and support for hardware and software users. Examples are PCSupport.com, Xdrive.com. Virtual community. It provides on-line meeting place where people can communicate and find useful information. Examples are Geocities, FortuneCity. Portal. It provides initial point of entry to the Web along with specialized content and other services. Example is Yahoo. Syndicator. It aggregates multiple sources and resells them to other companies. Example is Thinq. Outline the options and considerations for storage technology that may be available for complex data storage requirements such as that found at Q-Star PLC.
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But he did something greater. Indeed he created a program that reacted with the environment and is able to learn and understand, a computer with actual intelligence. John ran the program not knowing what he achieved. It took some time to load the software and compile it, so he went to bed assuming that he would look at the project the next day. During that time the computer configured its software and upgraded it to meet the surrounding environment. The computer was connected to the World Wide Web with a high speed Internet connection.
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20.3 Specification 1. Ability to store details of the equipment. For the purpose of this exercise, only the following items need be recorded, although in practice there would be many more. Description of Item Number in Stock Cost of Replacement Wheelchair - Junior 2 �275 Wheelchair - Small 2 �295 Wheelchair - Medium 3 �320 Wheelchair - Large 2 �350 Crutch - Junior 4 �75 Crutch - Adult 6 �95 Elbow Crutch - Junior 2 �85 Elbow Crutch - Adult 4 �105 Neck Collar - Junior 3 �17.50 Neck Collar - Adult 5 �23.75 2.
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Address Line 1 Text This data will be text as it is the first line of an address. Address Line 2 Text This data will be text as it is the second line of an address. Town Text This data will be text as it is a town. Post Code Text This data will be both characters and numbers so it must be of type text. Telephone Number Text Even though a telephone number is made up of numbers, it can contain brackets, spaces and +'s Contact name within Company Text This will be text as it is a name. Date of last salesman visit Date This will be a date of the last visit from a salesman.
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Explain the different data structures that are avaliable to computer programmers, giving examples of their use, and reasons why they would be chosen instead of others.
Algorithms could be developed to do this, however in reality they would not be used, and would prove to be not efficient if large amounts of data were involved. The pointer system is the preffered system to be used, which shows how newer data structures enable the user to insert and delete items of data without having to move any existing data. However this is not the most efficient way of dealing with large amounts of data. Stacks A stack is a method used to insert and delete items from a linear list.
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Background The history of electrical or electronic communications really means the history of serial communications. Serial means a symbol at a time, one after the other, in an agreed-upon sequence. The concept isn't random, it doesn't seems to be in the human language. Words are spoken one at a time, words have a beginning and an end. While vision is "parallel", broad-side, both alphabet-based and iconic languages look at one symbol or ideograph at a time. Character-based communications is basically different than things like telephony. Characters reduce communications to discrete symbols (incorrectly called "digital"), while things like telephones and facsimile ("fax")
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The customer must then produce a 'Credit Account Card', which has printed on their name, date of birth, and an account number given by the bookmakers. It has also a small photograph of the customer and signature. The employee must then check last bet placed, on credit, in the credit accounts book. If the customer has adequate credit left on his/her account the entry is logged and the amount they owe is then updated. They then receive their normal betting slip along side credits receipt.
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Lossy compression BMP is also known as Bitmap images can be used for storing raw image data, although it has now been replaced with PNG which offers greater compression and is also lossless. * Easy to create from existing files * Pixel values may be modified individually or as large groups * Supported by virtually every device * Does not degrade when saved multiple times like JPEG does * Very large file size * do not scale very well * Lacks all the other features of the other formats GIF images are typically used for line art with limited colours and images with large flat areas of colour.
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Phones of today can be described as a playground for graphic image editing because they allow images to be edited to look more attractive and more appealing and fun. The downfall for to Mobile Phone in correlation to graphic imaging is that the file of phone manipulated images are very small which you have to take into consideration whilst considering graphical image editing on your phone; it may be small on a computer surface not only that if you
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Describe the hardware and software used to create and edit graphic images and compare the limitations of different hardware and software packages used.
The higher you set your resolution, the smaller your icons and text, and your refresh rate drops. This may be a big limitation to graphic designers who want to make high quality graphics. Also graphics cards can also cost thousands of pounds, require a lot of space and draw a lot of power from the power supply. RAM RAM stands for random access memory, a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly. This means that any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers. RAM is used to hold the running software and graphic images.
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Discuss the impact that file format, compression techniques, image resolution and colour depth have on file size and image quality.
The fundamental disadvantage of the BMP file format is that the bigger the resolution the bigger the real document itself, so to have the picture in a high resolution it will take up a lot of space. The second drawback of this arrangement is that when you expand the picture the picture quality reduces, this is called pixilation. Representation Interchange Format The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a bitmap image format that is utilised a considerable amount for pictures on the web since it is ideal to use due to support, compatibility and is not too large in space and doesn?t take a long time to upload to be used on Web Pages.
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And threats like key loggers could gain private information. Therefore, anti-virus software prevents harm to the computer making it perform less efficient and protects private information. Disk clean up can help find unused files that can be deleted. It gives you the option to safely remove the unused files to help improve the performance of the computer by making it run faster or frees spaces so that more used files can be saved. If the computer has a lack of space it will slow down the computer.
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Furthermore you may decide to upload your data to the cloud server of a trusted and respected data storage company, this will mean that you can access your data from anywhere with an internet connection and your data is safe from on-site disasters. Normally data storage companies with cloud servers store your data in two separate locations to ensure that if a disaster occur on their site your data is still intact, secure and available to you. Updating of security procedures: The security procedure should reflect the technology used, if the procedure is not on par with the level of technology used then the security procedure will be flawed.
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These can help organizations recover from such failures and disasters immediately. There are several types of backups such as, incremental which stores only changed data since the last backup and differential which stores data that changed from the last full backup. Audit logs: This is where network and database activity is recorded, mainly who, what, and when the activity was performed. The purpose of this is to record how any system was used, on discovery of an issue to allow the possible cause to be tracked and to alert administrators to suspicious activity.
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The increases in instructions per cycle (IPC) were massive, and this was owed to a period in time where optimisations were plentiful and it was easy to spot shortcomings in architecture and design. Slowly, as Intel filled its roadmap with faster and faster processors, the speed increases were lower. Enter the age of the Pentium 4; it was here that Intel recognized that higher clock speeds could gain sizeable performance increases, and so they kept pushing up until 3.8 Ghz.
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After that user was asked if he had more issues to perform. 1. Abnormal Testing 2(Blank Input) Test Data : Mcode: Expected Result : Display message ?Please enter a member code first.? Display message ?More issue of books? Comments : The message shown on the right was displayed when Mcode remained blank and user requested validation. When ?Ok? was pressed, user was asked if he had more books to issue. Test input of book code 1. Normal Testing 1(No obstructions)
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Describe the application and limits of procedural, object oriented and event driven programming paradigms
and the ability of re-use the code for the same program allows programs to cut down wasteful time in recoding of the same procedure. However Procedural programing comes with limits especially with large projects as the code of the program will need constant refining and editing so because of this the program will turn into Spaghetti code which means that the flow of the code isn?t neat and scrambled around the program making it confusing for developers to keep track of which part leads to what.
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However, the first form of electronic computer was built in America between 1939 and 1945. It used vacuum tubes for power and magnetic drums for memory. It was enormous, used lots of power and wasn't very reliable. It was called the Atanasoff Berry Computer. But this computer was not for business, playing games or finding information, it was just a calculating device. Between those two inventions, many other computers were created like the Sky Disk of Nebra, the Antikythera Device, the slide rule and various other mechanical calculators.
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There are a number of types of malware, including: 1. Viruses ? requires a transport vehicle, like e-mail, and user action (like opening a file) to launch a program that can do various types of activities like erasing files, causing crashes, etc. 2. Worms ? unlike viruses, worms do not require a user action and they can travel by themselves. Worms perform similar functions as viruses 3. Trojan Horse ? program that?s advertised to perform one function, but actually perform a malicious function. 4. Rootkit ? software to break into a computer to perform unauthorized functions ? VERY difficult to find an remove 5.
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