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Behavior Modification and it Application to a Variety of Behaviors within in an Educational Setting

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Introduction

Behavior Modification and it Application to a Variety of Behaviors within in an Educational Setting Abstract Behavior modification is based on the concepts of observable antecedents, observable behavior, and consequences. A behavior modification program consists of a series of stages to achieve a desired modification of a target behavior. A token economy based behavior modification program that was applied for a full academic year in an entire elementary school, spanning from kindergarten through sixth grade was used as an example to show the application of behavior modification. Behavior modification has shown to be effective and efficient in dealing with behavioral problems among students within an educational setting and has become a valuable asset to teachers and parents. Behavior Modification and its Application to a Variety of Behaviors within an Educational Setting Behavior modification has long been used to help solve human behavioral problems within a wide range of settings such as prisons, homes, mental hospitals, rehabilitation centers, educational institutions, communities and businesses. According to Weiten (2004), behavior modification is a systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning. ...read more.

Middle

Extinction occurs when the probability of a particular behavior is decreased due to the termination of a stimulus that reinforces the behavior (Mikulas 1976). An example of this is when parents ignore their child's whining behavior, which is effective if they have given in to the whining behaviors in the past. The first step in a behavior modification program is to specify a target behavior (Weiten 2004). Once the target behavior has been established, baseline data is gathered. Gathering baseline data is helpful in understanding the pattern of the target behavior. In gathering baseline data, the initial response level of the target behavior is determined to serve as a comparison to check how successful the program is. Antecedents which are events that precede the target behavior and consequences of the target behavior are monitored. Once a behavioral pattern has been obtained and understood, an intervention program consisting reinforcement and consequences is planned to reduces or increases the probability of the target behavior. If the aim is to increase response strength, a positive reinforcement is selected. ...read more.

Conclusion

Sometimes auctions were held in which children could bid on various items, such as musical recordings, magazines, comic books, toys, and jewelry donated by parents and merchants. Data analyses revealed decreases in student disruptions and suspensions, and the students' scores on reading and mathematics achievement tests showed greater improvements during the year of the program than during the preceding year. Another behavior modification program was carried out in a special education classroom with mildly and moderately retarded 8- to 14-year-olds (Birnbrauer et al., 1972, as cited in Sarafino, 1996, p. 408). Token and social reinforcement were given for correct performance on academic assignments and being cooperative or doing an extra activity. Reprimands and time-out were used as punishment for disruptive behaviors. After three months into the program, the token reinforcement was suspended for 3 weeks. Only a third of the children continued to perform well during that time, but the higher performance levels returned when the token reinforcement was reinstated. In conclusion, behavior modification has been applied within an educational setting for years with success. It has shown to be effective and efficient in dealing with behavioral problems among students within an educational setting and has become a valuable asset to teachers and parents. ...read more.

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