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Everyone has the right to privacy. This is the right to not have details about our lives to be held or circulated without our knowledge/consent. Data of personnel nature are collect every so often by organisations.

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Chapter 13 - Protecting Data Issues of Privacy Everyone has the right to privacy. This is the right to not have details about our lives to be held or circulated without our knowledge/consent. Data of personnel nature are collect every so often by organisations. For example: * Employers hold personnel records that include data on address, age, qualification, salary, sick leave and so on. * Stores hold detail on credit card payment, accounts history, items purchased; * Banks hold details on salary, income and withdrawals, direct debits to various organisations; * Insurance companies hold detail on property, cars, accidents, claims and health. This list is endless. Modern technology has made it possible to store vast quantities of data, so that it can be viewed from all over the world and so that it can be used to create a profile of an individual. Threats to information Systems Organisations can protect the integrity of data (by preventing inaccurate data entry, malicious or accidental alteration), and simple measures can be taken to protect the security of data form theft or destruction. Data Integrity This refers to the correctness of data. The data held on a computer may become incorrect, corrupt or of 'poor quality'. ...read more.


e.g. A hospital receptionist may have the right to view and change some patient details, such as the name, address, and appointments. But they may not have access to the patient's medical file. Access rights to data could be set to 'read only', 'read/write' or 'no access'. This way a user in a company can gain access to data which they are permitted to see and can only change data if they are authorised to do so. Likewise, the computer it self can be programmed to allow access to data from a particular terminal, and only at a certain time of day. The terminal in the administrator's office may be the only terminal which has authorisation to change the structure of a database. An access directory can be made, which shows each user's access rights. Securing against fraudulent use or malicious damage Organisations are often exposed due to: * The possibility of fraud; * The deliberate corruption of data by unhappy employees; * Theft of software or data which may fall into the hands of their competitors. Measures to oppose these risks are as follows. * Careful selection of employees * Immediate removal of employees who have been sacked or who hand in their resignation, and the cancellation of their passwords and authorisation. ...read more.


A simple disk head crash can destroy a disk packing a fraction of a second. System designers must provide a reasonable backup facility that does not degrade the performance of the system and is not very expensive. The cost of lack of planning for a computer failure can be ruinous. Periodic Backups The most common way to ensure that data is not lost is to make regular copies of files into a safe place. This is called 'Periodic Backups'. This scheme has several weaknesses: * All updates to a file since the last backup may be lost; * The systems may need to be shut down during backup operations; * Backups of large files can be time consuming; * When a failure occurs, recovery from the backup can be even more time consuming. A benefit is that files which may have been fragmented can be reorganised to occupy smaller amounts of same, resulting in faster access time. It is important to store copies of data in secure areas. One copy of data can be held in a fire-proof safe in a building and another off-site. Recovery procedures A contingency plan needs to be developed to allow rapid recovery of major disruptions. It is necessary to do the following in backup procedures: 1. Identify alternative compatible equipment and security facilities, or implement a service agreement which provides equipment when needed. 2. Have provision for alternative communication links. ...read more.

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