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Information technology coursework

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Introduction

Information technology coursework To produce a simple introduction to computers for a computer beginner INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Input - The Keyboard The keyboard is essentially based on the standard QWERTY keyboard used by typists. The main differences are the additions made by computer manufacturers. The first thing to notice is that the keyboard has three main sections. The first section is the main QWERTY keyboard, which has three extra keys. The most important of these extra keys is usually marked "ENTER" or "RETURN". The enter key is on the right side of the keyboard and is used to tell the computer that you have finished typing and wish either to move to a fresh empty line or that you want the computer to carry out the typed instruction. The other two additional keys are the "ALT" and the "CONTROL" keys ("CTRL"). These act in the same way as the shift key on the typewriter and so allow normal keys to have a number of different effects. The second part of the keyboard is the FUNCTION keys. There are always at least ten and sometimes twelve of these labelled F1 to F10 or F12, which are grouped together on the left of the keyboard or along the top of it. They are used by programs like word processors or spreadsheets to give instructions to the computer. They do not normally produce an effect on the screen but can do in some programs. The third part of the keyboard is the numeric key pad. This is situated on the right of the keyboard and serves two functions. ...read more.

Middle

When you use a disc for the first time, you must use a special program called an operating system to format the disk's surface by creating circular tracks divided into pie-shaped sectors. A hole punched near the hub of the disk lets the computer know where the first sector is. A track on each disk stores a directory that tells the computer where to find what information. This means that it can go directly to the correct part of the disk instead of wading through all of its contents to find the information it wants. A typical floppy disk can store around 200 pages of typewritten text, depending on how tightly the information is packed. If pictures are stored on disk, they take up a lot of room. Care of Floppy Disks Information is stored on floppy disk by means of magnetism. The information stored on a disk can be lost if the magnetic surface of the disk is damaged. When handling a disk you must be careful not to bend it or touch the exposed portions. Moisture, extreme temperatures, and exposure to magnetic fields or equipment can also ruin disks. You should keep back-up copies of all important disks to insure that your data will not be lost if a disk is damaged. You can guard against the possibility of accidentally writing over and erasing important data and programs by moving the small write-protect notch on the side of the disk. When this notch is closed, a sensor inside the drive prevents the head from writing onto the disk. ...read more.

Conclusion

The processor retrieves the letter and the first name and address, prints the letter, retrieves the next name and address, changes the information in the letter, prints the next letter and so on. Real-Time Systems An example of a real-time system is Airline Booking. This is a system which updates the data immediately it changes. All the terminals in all the booking offices are connected via a telephone line to a large computer in the head office of the company. This is so that information can be accessed immediately and be changed on confirmation of a booking immediately. For example, if you wanted to book a flight, you would feed details into the terminal about the flight, and back would come a message saying perhaps that only two seats remain on that flight. If you then take these seats by sending that information back, confirmation would take place and then no-one anywhere in the world would be able to book a seat on that particular flight (even if they tried to book only ten seconds after you). Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is a special application package, which allows the user to set up tables of information and add up rows and columns which make up the table. They are used mainly for displaying cash forecasts of companies, in the form of a table where all the figures are interconnected. Each intersection of a row and a column is called a 'cell'. The cells are filled with figures and then changes can be made and the spreadsheet calculates all the related cells, alters and reprints them. Figures can be changed and the overall effect on the complete table can be seen immediately. ...read more.

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