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James. T. Russell and the Invention of the Compact Disc.

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James. T. Russell and the Invention of the Compact Disc James Russell was born in Bremerton, Washington in 1931. His first invention, at six years old, was a remote-control battleship with a storage chamber for his lunch. In 1953, he earned his Bachelor of Arts in physics and graduated from Reed College in Portland. Afterwards he went to work as a Physicist in General Electric's nearby labs in Richland, Washington. There he started many experimental instrumentation projects. He was one of the first to use a color TV screen and keyboard with a computer. He designed and built the first electron beam welder. When the Bettelle Memorial Institute opened its Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, James joined as a Senior Scientist. Whilst attending he introduced his thoughts about optical data storage. He started constructing prototypes of a digital-to-optical recording and playback system and dispersing information about the potential of this technology. He found more interest in this work outside of the company though, so he joined a firm and developed his ideas as vice president for research and member of the board. ...read more.


Then a thin acrylic layer is sprayed over the aluminum to protect it, and the CD label is printed onto the acrylic. The compact disc was first used for audio storage only, but are now used to store audio, video, text, and any other information in digital form, and are able to hold 783 megabytes in all. The CD works, because binary information is encoded in light and dark forms on the disk. Laser light is shone on to the disk and the reflection from either the light or dark parts of the CD produces an electric signal. Once this information is converted into electric signals its easy to convert to audio or visual signals. The CD player finds and reads the data stored as bumps on the CD. The drive consists of three fundamental components: * A drive motor, which spins the disk and will rotate between 200 and 500 rpm depending on which track is being read. As the laser moves outward, it rotates slower so the bumps travel past the laser at a constant speed, and the data comes off at a constant rate. ...read more.


Without CDs, we wouldn't have computer games, or software. We also spend less money now, because not only does the CD have an almost faultless quality, as they can survive finger marks, small scratches, and water, and there's no contact between the disc and the what's reading it, so the CD lasts longer. From the CD, came the CD-ROM, CD-I (an interactive CD that's used to store video, audio or data), CD-ROM XA (a CD that contains computer data, compressed audio data, and video/picture data) photo and video CDs, CD-R (a writeable CD that can only be written to once), and the CD-RW (a re-writeable CD that can be written many times). We can now store our own music, documents, and other files onto a disk, which is seen in both good and bad ways, but either way, the CD has brought a lot more convenience to our present world. resources- * www.howstuffworks.com * www.inventors.about.com * hutchinson multimedia enyclopedia * Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia www.ec.gc.ca/acidrain Penguin Publishing House, 1987 , Pearce Fred Acid Rain. What is it and what is it doing to us? ...read more.

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