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LAN & Topologies & Data Flow

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BTEC National Certificate for IT Practitioners Unit 8 Communication Technologies Assignment 3 Introduction In this assignment I am going to list and describe the components that make up a LAN. I will also state how they can be interconnected and interact with each other. I will show some LAN topologies and illustrate them. Finally I will explain and describe how data travels around the various topologies and list the advantages and disadvantages of each topology. LAN I am going to look at the components that make the LAN and describe them. Ethernet, Hardware, NIC's, Hubs/Switches/etc these are the list of components that make up the LAN and now I am going to explain each of these components. NIC's - Network Interface Card are used for connecting a RJ-45 cable. Nearly all the modem PC's or PC's which connect through dial-up connection need a NIC. On either ends is a RJ-45 connector which then allows you connect to another computer on the network or another device. The NIC is interconnected to other hardware such as the motherboard; this allows it to communicate with the computer. There are 3 ways the NIC can be connected to the computer. As mentioned before it can be integrated on the motherboard, connected through a PCI slot or connected using a ISA slot (Industry Standard Architecture). For the NIC's to communicate with each other properly they need to have been connected with a RJ-45 connector on either end to one of the computers. ...read more.


Hubs do not manage traffic on the network, but it can broadcast any packets that it receives from its incoming ports. Ethernet cable is connected to the hub and a cable from the hub is connected to a workstation or a server for the LAN to work. Bridges - Similar to a switch a bridge allows two different network segments to be connected together. Mostly the same communication protocol is used. It also manages and decides which packet of data should be transported from one segment to another segment by analyzing the MAC address. A wireless bridge is also available which allows extension of wireless networks. Bridge also allows various networks to connect together on the data link layer. Switch - Switches allow segments of network to link together. Switch filters and forward packets to various different segments of a LAN. Network performance is increased by reducing competition for available bandwidth by segmentations. Working at the network layer which is layer 3 in a OSI model, when the switch receives a signal it will define it as a data packet it will read the destined address from the data link layer protocol header and it will forward it to the computer. This is actualized by reducing the traffic and collisions on the network. Token Passing Token passing is the method used by nodes to send and receive data in a network. ...read more.


* It requires a lot more cable than other types of topologies because all the node are connected, so the more nodes that are connected the more cable is needed. * It can workout to be quite expensive to setup. Ring Topology - The node are interconnected with each other like mesh but each node is exactly connected to two other node, which result in a pathway for signal that are transmitted. The data which is transmitted is handled by each node on the network and then sent back with an acknowledgement of receipt. When the node transmitting the data receives the receipt it destroys the token ring. Either a token ring or a small packet is continuously passed around the network so when a device needs to send something it will reserve the token ring. Advantages * Network is not dependent on a centralized node because each of the nodes on the network can support the transmission rates around the network. Each of the nodes has the ability to take control of the transmission rate. * Extremely high transmission rate can be achieved. Typically speed of transmission is around 10 Mbps which is quite quick. For e.g. it will take around 2 minutes to send a 100MB file which is pretty quick. * Compared to a star topology it performs a lot better under heavy load. * Network server is not required to manage the network. ?? ?? ?? ?? Anas Patel Assignment 3 ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

*** A good decription of topologies with useful diagrams but the earlier topics include too many terms that are not explained properly and require a lot of knowledge

Marked by teacher Ivor Borkin 01/04/2012

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