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Principles of Computer Networks

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BTEC National Certificate for IT Practitioners Unit 27 Principles of Computer Networks Assignment 1 Introductions In this assignment I am going to describe the types of networks available and how they relate to particular network standards and protocols and I am also going to describe, using examples, why different network standards and protocols are necessary LAN This is type of network which covers a small office, home or a school network. A LAN uses either wired Ethernet or wireless RF technology. Using a LAN can be much easier when there is a printer available or sharing a file throughout the network. Updating software is much easier because updating software will automatically update all the other software's. LAN has much higher transmission rates because it is wired connection rather than wireless. Ethernet and Wi-Fi as most widely used technologies, however many others such as token rings have been used before. This relates to standard IEEE 802.2. This standard allows two connectionless and one connection orientated operational mode: Type 1 which allows frames to be sent to a single destination or multiple destinations on the same network is a connectionless mode. Type 2 is the oriented operational connection mode. In this mode it uses something called sequence numbering which makes sure that when the data is send it gets to the destination in the correct order and not a single frame has been lost. Type 3 which is also a connectionless service, but only support point to point communication. Infrared is related to this service because in computer infrared network it can receive and transmit data either through the side of the device or the rear side of the device. When connections are made using Microsoft Windows Infrared the same method used for LAN connections can be used. Infrared technology has been extended to allow more than two computers to be connected semi permanent networks. ...read more.


* Each device connected to the network is isolated; this prevents any non-centralized failure to affect other devices on the network. * Expanding the network is very easy because of centralization. It can also analyze traffic and determine whether suspicious behaviour. * This topology overall is very easy to understand, design and navigate. This topology discards the need of complex routing/message forwarding protocols Disadvantages * There are setbacks of this type of topology because the network is dependent on the system functioning of the central hubs, If there is a problem with the central hub then the whole network will stop working. * The whole network will also depend on the performance and capabilities of the central hub. The performance will depend on the number of connection that can be made simultaneously to the server. * Centralization can be a drawback if it there is high utilizing of the network because it will result in performance drop in the traffic on the network. Mesh Topology - In this type of topology each of the nodes are connected with each other. This means that the internet is the largest type of mesh topology. When the data is transmitted it will automatically know where the data is to be sent and it will take the shortest route. Advantages * Even if there is a fault in the cable the traffic will still be sent because all the nodes on the network are joined together. The node can automatically reroute itself if the cable is broken because there is not gateway computer. Disadvantages * Takes a long time to set up beach each node needs to be connected to each other, so data can flow around without problems. * It requires a lot more cable than other types of topologies because all the node are connected, so the more nodes that are connected the more cable is needed. ...read more.


IEEE 802.16 It is known as the Broadband Wireless Access. This is the standard for the upcoming WiMax system. It stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a telecommunication technology which uses wireless transmission to deploy broadband to anywhere. It uses 75 Mbps broadband speed without the need for cables. FDDI It stands for Fibre Distributed Data Interface. A protocol which allows digital data to be sent over fibre optic cable. FDDI networks are also token passing networks but support speeds up to 100 Mbps. There is also an extension to FDDI called FDDI2 which supports voice and video transmission as well as data transmission. Infrared Similar to Bluetooth but has not got as good transmission or sending range but it's a technology which allows devices to communicate at short range using wireless signals. Computers equipped with infrared can transfer digital data bidirectionally. As mentioned before infrared communications have very short distances. Unlike Bluetooth it can't penetrate thought walls and only works in direct line of sight. Infrared technology exists in three forms IrDA-SIR (slow speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 115 Kbps. IrDA-MIR (medium speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 1.15 Mbps. IrDA-FIR (fast speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 4 Mbps. Bluetooth A wireless transmission protocol which has been around for a lot of years but recently been used more than ever. It is a short distance data exchanging over short distances fixed and mobile devices which make up PAN's. Benefit of using Bluetooth is that it can overcome the problem of synchronization. Bluetooth in other words is a standard and communication protocol which has been designed for low power and cost transceiver microchips in every device. Another benefit of using Bluetooth is that as long as the transmission device has enough power it can be as far apart and no bee in sight of each other they can still transmit or communicate. Conclusion Only one standard or various standards cannot be used for different things, this would result in things not working properly and not compatible with different devices. ...read more.

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Response to the question

The student has explained clearly in the introduction what this document will discuss and goes on to provide a detailed list of various types of computer networks. Regarding network topologies, the student adopts a diagrammatic approach along with explaining ...

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Response to the question

The student has explained clearly in the introduction what this document will discuss and goes on to provide a detailed list of various types of computer networks. Regarding network topologies, the student adopts a diagrammatic approach along with explaining the pros and cons for each setup. This is considered a very useful form of practice due to that fact that it caters for visual learners. Information-wise, this document is a very good reference guide to the basics of computer networking.

Level of analysis

The writer provides an in-depth and detailed analysis of network methodologies and even going a step further by listing common examples, explaining industry networking standards and outlining the advantages and disadvantages where appropriate. The document however lacks references and citations to external sources and information. A bibliography is recommended as it allows the reader to further explore the topic being discussed and thus gain a broader range of knowledge, as well as confirming any statements, assumptions and conclusions made.

Quality of writing

The document contains frequent grammatical errors throughout and lacks any use of paragraphs and this makes the writing difficult to read. The document also does not include a table of contents and page numbers, which makes it difficult to navigate – this is of particular concern if the reader only wishes to read about certain areas of computer networks.

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