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The Data Protection Act

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Introduction

The Data Protection Act Public concern about computerised information centres upon :- ? How can we be sure that information held about us is accurate? ? If information is used for one purpose, how can we be sure that it will not be used for something else? ? How can access to information be guaranteed only to certain people? IV. Should individuals be concerned that banks, for example, tell the Inland Revenue if an account receives more than �150 interest in a year? The Act serves to help calm some of these fears by making those who hold computerised records register the fact and also enabling an individual to see what is held about him or her and to receive compensation if material is inaccurate The Data Protection Act demands that Personal data should be :- 1Collected and Processed Fairly and Lawfully 2Used Only for Registered Purposes Or Disclosed to Registered Recipients 3Accurate and Kept Up to Date 4Held No Longer Than is Necessary for the Stated Purpose 5Contained Within Appropriate Security. Data Protection ~ 1984 1.The information to be contained in personal data shall be obtained, and personal data shall be processed, fairly and lawfully. 2.Personal data shall be held only for one or more specified and lawful purposes. 3.Personal data held for any purpose or purposes shall not be used or disclosed in any matter incompatible with that purpose or those purposes. 4.Personal data held for any purpose or purposes shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to that purpose or those purposes. 5.Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date. 6.Personal data held for any purpose or purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or those purposes. 7.An individual shall be entitled :- (a)at reasonable intervals and without undue delay or expense i)to be informed by any Data User whether holds personal data of which that individual is subject. ...read more.

Middle

This is the 'transmit enable' code and is decimal 17 or 11 hex. This code is received by the computer, which knows that it is able to commence transmitting data to the modem. This is the XON condition. If there is incoming traffic, the modem sends out an ASCII DC3 character. This is the XOFF condition and is 19 in decimal (13 in hex). The computer receives this code and stops transmitting data Note: * This method is be used with a serial printer. It sends out an XOFF code when its intemal buffer is full. As it prints, it reduces the amount of characters in its buffer. When the buffer has sufficient space, it sends out a DC 1 code to the computer, which resumes the transmission of data to the printer. * The ASCII codes DC 1 and DC3 stand for Device Control 1 and Device Control 3. * This method can transmit and receive text files, since the printable ASCII set ranges from 32 to I ~ Binary files (i.e. containing machine code) contain a full range of possible numeric values. This would include the values for the DC 1 and DC3 signals, which means that XON/XOFF is not suitable for transmitting and receiving binary files. RS232 Pins A summary of the uses of the main pins on a computer's serial port is shown in the following table. * DTR Data Terminal ready - The computer informs the modem that it is powered up and ready to be active, by switching this pin to an 'ON' state. Most modems require to receive this signal before they will operate * DSR (Data Set Ready) - The modem informs the computer that it is powered up and ready to be active, by switching this pin to an 'ON' state. Most computer ports require this signal before they will operate * CTS (Clear to Send) ...read more.

Conclusion

Wire Leased 4,800 Half Duplex Two Wire Switched 4,800 V.29 Full Duplex Four Wire Leased 9,600 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Half Duplex Two Wire Switched 9,600 V.32bis Full Duplex Two Wire Switched 14,400 V.34 Full Duplex Two Wire Switched 28,800 Bell 103 Full Duplex Two Wire Switched 28,800 V.42 V42bis Data Comp V90 56,600 Even Parity The sending device counts the number of 'one' bits in the character to be Panty Bit transmitted. If the number of these data bits is even, as in the top diagram, the parity bit is set to zero. If the number of 'one' bits is odd, as in the lower diagram, 1001 1 10 the parity bit is set to one. Thus the total number of 'ones' in the byte will Parity Bit always be even, no matter how many 'ones' are in the character being transmitted0100101 If any of the data bits or parity bits is accidentally altered during transmission, the receiving device can detect the problem by counting the number of bits. If the total is not an even number, there has been corruption of the data. This provides an elementary check for data errors. Odd Parity Here, the sending device counts the number of 'one' bits in the byte to be transmitted. If the number of these data bits is even, as in the top diagram, the parity bit is set to one. If the number of 'one' bits is already odd, as in the lower diagram, the parity bit is set to zero. In this way, the total number of 'ones1 in the group is always maintained at an odd value. Note Parity checking is a useful facility but it is not foolproof. For example, two bits in a byte both being altered from zero to one would produce a correct parity check although the data in the byte had been corrupted. In practice, larger blocks of data are examined for corruption (see section later on Error Detection). H. T. Harvey 11-Feb-04 1of 7 Legislation.doc ...read more.

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