• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Time and Cost Estimating Techniques

Extracts from this document...


Time and Cost Estimating Techniques Estimating work times provides several benefits for the project manager. It gives an idea of the level of effort required to complete a project. This information then enables the project manager to produce a realistic plan based upon that effort. Estimating also helps the project manager anticipate the budget for the project. There are many formal techniques available to estimate time and cost for activities. Please refer to the Project Management Reference Section for more details on these techniques. Anyone reviewing these estimates should understand that they are approximations, not accuracies. Although the formal techniques are very specific, most of them have the following tasks in common: * Break activities down into small pieces for easier and more accurate estimation. (WBS) * Review historical information and compare to current activities. * Include a contingency buffer for potential risks. * Solicit advice from others that have previously completed similar activities. * Identify and document the assumptions and parameters used to derive the estimates. Microsoft Project Microsoft Project is project management software. Project management software assists project managers by providing a means for organizing project information. ...read more.


A wide range of observational techniques are commonly used and combined according to the particular requirements of a study. Observations may be direct observations, where the investigator is actually present during the task (visual observations, remote observations via closed-circuit television), or indirect observations, where the task is viewed by some other means such as video recording or time-lapse photography. Application Perhaps the most obvious method by which the user can be analysed is to observe him or her performing the task in an operational situation. Although observational techniques can capture the details of many individual tasks, they may not elicit the work role. Thus, observational techniques are most appropriate when the information of primary interest is of visual or auditory form. Thus, observation methods can be especially useful for recording physical task sequence, or verbal interactions between several people. One method which can augment the information gathered is that of current verbal accounts. Here the user is asked to 'think aloud' and describe the activities he or she is performing as they are undertaken. Advantages Observational techniques produce information which cannot be collected in any other way. Indeed, detailed physical task performance, social interactions, surrounding influences can be recorded. ...read more.


Participant observation The investigator takes part in the tasks alongside other operators. It may be a useful data collection approach if skilled performance is such that actions are "semi-automatic" in which case users may find it difficult to verbalise how they are achieving the task goals. This type of observation can also be useful if aspects of team performance are being investigated to understand how the team members are organised and perform their tasks. Communication and conversational analysis Investigation of the patterns in the organisation of people's interaction (it would be possible to use the principle of analysing a conversation between two travellers, or one traveller and one transport enquiry office operator in real situations, in order to identify the needs for the traveller in specific contexts, what are the difficulties encountered, how a system could resolve these difficulties,... ). One of these methods is the language / action approach which considers the language as a means by which people act. Advantage of this method : it provides a complete and logical conceptual frame in order to investigate all kinds of conversation. Disadvantage of this method : many situations are characterised by subtle communication processes not taken into account by the model. There is also a difficulty in labelling an interaction and a message especially if they do not fit into the request or promise categories. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Computer Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Computer Science essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management ...

    3 star(s)

    However, prototyping is most beneficial in systems that will have many interactions with the users. It has been found that prototyping is very effective in the analysis and design of on-line systems, especially for transaction processing, where the use of screen dialogs is much more in evidence.

  2. Processor Scheduling

    queue with a shorter time than the current process, if this is the case then the current process is put into the ready queue and swapped concurrently. Since this is the only time when a process need be switched, it results in much less overhead than the Round Robin technique that I will describe next.

  1. Ict Analysis

    It is mostly used for sending emails. I think many of my staff would find using computers difficult so therefore by implementing an easy and efficient data handling program would be ideal I have high hopes that my staff would get used to the system quickly therefore making the running of the restaurant more efficient.

  2. Computing Project

    The 'member table' will contain the entire customers which are registered with the shop. When one of the customers wants to rent out a DVD, the user has to make sure that DVD is available to rent out so what I am going to do in this system is that

  1. Introduction of Communication

    The other school had a VLE provided by the local council, it wasn't as good as the first one but I could still get the files I needed. WWW (World Wide Web) * E-mail: E-mail is an online correspondence system.

  2. Computing Project

    Price per lesson Number, Decimal (5,2) �19.00 How much the student pays for each lesson Date and time of next lesson Text/ Number 11/11/07.13.00 The next lesson student has booked. AVAILABILITY DETAILS Instructor Field name Type, Max range Example Description AvailableSlots Date/time, Variable Friday 01/02/08 13:00 A day, date and

  1. Smart Card System

    Derived Validation Criteria Continuous: Upper Limit: Lower Limit: Discrete: Upper Limit: Lower Limit: Comments: Telephone number is required to keep contact to lab managing staff Attributes Description Form Name: Staff ID Description: This attribute contains the Staff's identity number Element Characteristics Length: 10 Dec.

  2. With diagrams compare and contrast the relative advantages and disadvantages of digital transmission over ...

    The diagram is shown below: This is called an analogue signal because, when the volume and pitch change, so does the shape of the wave. The signal is an analogue of the sound. Digital signal Today we see many sound systems described as digital.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work