• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Time and Cost Estimating Techniques

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Time and Cost Estimating Techniques Estimating work times provides several benefits for the project manager. It gives an idea of the level of effort required to complete a project. This information then enables the project manager to produce a realistic plan based upon that effort. Estimating also helps the project manager anticipate the budget for the project. There are many formal techniques available to estimate time and cost for activities. Please refer to the Project Management Reference Section for more details on these techniques. Anyone reviewing these estimates should understand that they are approximations, not accuracies. Although the formal techniques are very specific, most of them have the following tasks in common: * Break activities down into small pieces for easier and more accurate estimation. (WBS) * Review historical information and compare to current activities. * Include a contingency buffer for potential risks. * Solicit advice from others that have previously completed similar activities. * Identify and document the assumptions and parameters used to derive the estimates. Microsoft Project Microsoft Project is project management software. Project management software assists project managers by providing a means for organizing project information. ...read more.

Middle

A wide range of observational techniques are commonly used and combined according to the particular requirements of a study. Observations may be direct observations, where the investigator is actually present during the task (visual observations, remote observations via closed-circuit television), or indirect observations, where the task is viewed by some other means such as video recording or time-lapse photography. Application Perhaps the most obvious method by which the user can be analysed is to observe him or her performing the task in an operational situation. Although observational techniques can capture the details of many individual tasks, they may not elicit the work role. Thus, observational techniques are most appropriate when the information of primary interest is of visual or auditory form. Thus, observation methods can be especially useful for recording physical task sequence, or verbal interactions between several people. One method which can augment the information gathered is that of current verbal accounts. Here the user is asked to 'think aloud' and describe the activities he or she is performing as they are undertaken. Advantages Observational techniques produce information which cannot be collected in any other way. Indeed, detailed physical task performance, social interactions, surrounding influences can be recorded. ...read more.

Conclusion

Participant observation The investigator takes part in the tasks alongside other operators. It may be a useful data collection approach if skilled performance is such that actions are "semi-automatic" in which case users may find it difficult to verbalise how they are achieving the task goals. This type of observation can also be useful if aspects of team performance are being investigated to understand how the team members are organised and perform their tasks. Communication and conversational analysis Investigation of the patterns in the organisation of people's interaction (it would be possible to use the principle of analysing a conversation between two travellers, or one traveller and one transport enquiry office operator in real situations, in order to identify the needs for the traveller in specific contexts, what are the difficulties encountered, how a system could resolve these difficulties,... ). One of these methods is the language / action approach which considers the language as a means by which people act. Advantage of this method : it provides a complete and logical conceptual frame in order to investigate all kinds of conversation. Disadvantage of this method : many situations are characterised by subtle communication processes not taken into account by the model. There is also a difficulty in labelling an interaction and a message especially if they do not fit into the request or promise categories. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Computer Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Computer Science essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management ...

    3 star(s)

    to become attached to their work, users do not develop performance expectations, and best of all, paper prototypes do not depend on the system being available. [GER00] Gerri Akers (2000), what is Prototyping, http://www.umsl.edu/~sauterv/analysis/prototyping/proto.html [BER09] Bernstein (2009), Importance of Software Prototyping, http://www.softpanorama.org/SE/software_prototyping.shtml [ONE10] One Stop Testing (2010), Advantages of Prototyping, Prototype model, http://www.onestoptesting.com/sdlc-models/prototype-model/advantages.asp Rapid Application Development (RAD)

  2. Computing Project

    The shop clerk will then go into the stock room and obtain that DVD and give it to the customer he will then create a record in the 'Loans table' which will contain the member ID, Copy Number, the date borrowed, the return date and the rental cost.

  1. Programming Techniques

    However, there is only one state per module and each module exists at most once in the whole program. Long programs are written in small sections or modules. The advantages of this approach are: > Small sections are easier to debug > Once a module is thoroughly tested, it can

  2. Computing Project

    This will also meet the criteria of the prospective user, and I will be able to include things like adding and editing student details. Viewing making appointments, this will mean that it will fulfil all the criteria for the user and my system will aid the instructor in doing day-to-day jobs more effectively.

  1. Ilford Cricket Team Data Analysis Project.

    Which will mean data is analysed quicker and so the coach and the captain can quickly change tactics and hopefully keep better tactics and win games. I have already mentioned this project is fairly economic in its initial costs, as the hardware and software are very cheap.

  2. I have been given the task of creating a system for a hospital to ...

    A good user interface is an important part of a successful system, the design must take into consideration: * Who is going to use the system - experienced users, members of the public or even children * What Tasks the computer is performing - life threatening procedures such as controlling

  1. With diagrams compare and contrast the relative advantages and disadvantages of digital transmission over ...

    by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same axis. The outer channel serves as a ground. Many of these cables or pairs of coaxial tubes can be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, they can carry information for a great distance.

  2. Different ways of data capture

    Some databases are fast with small amounts of data but slow with mass amounts of records. * COST. Maybe simply cost of package. If package is to be used in organization, cost of licensing agreement which specifies how many copies can be legally made, or how many users can use it on a network.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work