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Computer-aided Design/Manufacture.

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Introduction

Computer-aided Design/Manufacture Computer-aided design (CAD) or computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), form of automation that helps designers prepare drawings, specifications, parts lists, and other design-related elements using special graphics- and calculations-intensive computer programs. The technology is used for a wide variety of products in such fields as architecture, electronics, and aerospace, naval, and automotive engineering. Although CAD systems originally merely automated drafting, they now usually include three-dimensional modelling and computer-simulated operation of the model. Rather than having to build prototypes and change components to determine the effects of tolerance ranges, engineers can use computers to simulate operation to determine loads and stresses. For example, an automobile manufacturer might use CAD to calculate the wind drag on several new car-body designs without having to build physical models of each one. ...read more.

Middle

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), a form of automation where computers communicate work instructions directly to the manufacturing machinery. The technology evolved from the numerically controlled machines of the 1950s, which were directed by a set of coded instructions contained in a punched paper tape. Today a single computer can control banks robotic milling machines, lathes, welding machines, and other tools, moving the product from machine to machine as each step in the manufacturing process is completed. Such systems allow easy, fast reprogramming from the computer, permitting quick implementation of design changes. The most advanced systems, which are often integrated with computer aided design systems, can also manage such tasks as parts ordering, scheduling, and tool replacement. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Staff may which increased salaries as their jobs become more specialised and skilled. Advantages of CAM: * Can be operated at low labour volume. * Can be run 24hrs. * Easy to change the production procedure to meet requirements. * Easy to monitor. * Efficient. * Accurate, better quality less wastage. Disadvantages of CAM * Expensive start up costs. * Expensive to replace/repair. * May lead to making a percentage of the workforce redundant causing resentment and fear for jobs- bad working atmosphere. Future of CAD: The possibility of future developments in CAD such as providing clients with architectural drawings on disc, transmitting information to remote locations, video-conferencing, and collecting data. Another possibility is the provision of information like thermal calculations, costing, lighting and acoustical analysis of materials. CAD could, for example, demonstrate for clients the design relationship between product costs and layouts or demonstrate energy efficiency measures. ...read more.

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