• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Experimental methods are finding increasing use in manufacturing to optimize the production process. Specifically, the goal of these methods is to identify the optimum settings for the different factors

Extracts from this document...


Experimental methods are widely used in research as well as in industrial settings, however, sometimes for very different purposes. The primary goal in scientific research is usually to show the statistical significance of an effect that a particular factor exerts on the dependent variable of interest1. Experimental design is a planned interference in the natural order of events by the researcher. He does something more than carefully observe what is occurring. This emphasis on experiment reflects the higher regard generally given to information so derived. There is good rationale for this. Much of the substantial gain in knowledge in all sciences has come from actively manipulating or interfering with the stream of events. There is more than just observation or measurement of a natural event. A selected condition or a change (treatment) is introduced. Observations or measurements are planned to illuminate the effect of any change in conditions. The importance of experimental design also stems from the quest for inference about causes or relationships as opposed to simply description. Researchers are rarely satisfied to simply describe the events they observe. They want to make inferences about what produced, contributed to, or caused events. ...read more.


were used. A constant variable was introduced through clearly specified outcome probabilities4. Independent variables, which are variants of decisions the respondents had to make, were established by the researchers5; however, dependent variables were not properly defined even though they may have made a significant impact on the results of the experiment. I may be mistaken, but based on this I'd say there is no strong evidence of design control. No matter that the design was based on random assignment and statistical controls, there are many factors that hadn't been properly taken into consideration, such as people's age, sex, past experience, education, occupation, social factor, etc. and their impact was not properly evaluated when interpreting the results. Besides that, in my opinion, when analyzing and interpreting the collected data, the authors had to assess similarity of some particular (sub)groups (which, by the way, had not been singled out neither) and detect possible tampering with randomization process. Hence, if the groups were defined, it would be possible to conduct further factoral design in order to study different interventions on the same population and/or potential interactions between several populations6. ...read more.


In the end, if the situation is right, an experiment can be a very strong design to use. But it isn't automatically so. My own guess is that randomized experiments are probably appropriate in no more than 10% of the social research studies. Summary Experimental methods are finding increasing use in manufacturing to optimize the production process. Specifically, the goal of these methods is to identify the optimum settings for the different factors that affect some particular process. In the discussion so far, the major classes of designs that are typically used in experimentation can been introduced: two-level, multi-factor designs, screening designs for large numbers of factors, three-level, multi-factor designs (mixed designs with 2 and 3 level factors are also supported), central composite (or response surface) designs, Latin square designs, Taguchi robust design analysis, mixture designs, and special procedures for constructing experiments in constrained experimental regions9. Interestingly, many of such experimental techniques have "made their way" from the production plant into management, and successful implementations have been reported in profit planning in business, cash-flow optimization in banking, etc10. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Design and Technology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Design and Technology essays

  1. ICT in Manufacturing.

    It is not just brewers who are interested in the artificial nose. Manufacturers of instant coffee, perfume and other aromatic products are spending huge sums, in co-operation with researchers at several universities, to build a better-than-human olfactory sensor. Source: Garth Alexander, The Sunday Times 19 September 1993.

  2. Light & artificial lighting systems

    These units require a vast amount of interior and exterior space and are also powered by electricity requiring a large quantity of power. The use of air conditioning may also defeat the object of designing the building for the purpose of not using artificial lighting systems for cost saving and environmental grounds.

  1. Select either a qualitative or quantitative study, then make a critical analysis of it ...

    In effect to the research method, the study also describes the criteria used to select participants in the research and where the study took place, however the reasons why the survey was carried out within that specific part of Britain is left unmentioned.

  2. Design Principles and Appliction - Constraints

    Hard data about the site is essential: this involves a site survey showing boundaries, areas, and dimensions to enable a site plot to be drawn to scale. This will also allow the size of the site to be calculated. Any other necessary details will be collected from the site.

  1. Introduction to construction. Identify & describe the key factors that influence construction projects related ...

    Identify & describe 2 sustainable construction techniques that could be used to minimise the impact of the built environment on the natural environment. Though green buildings are interpreted in many different ways, a common view is that they should be designed and operated to reduce the overall impact of

  2. Nano technology - Screen technology is a fast changing technology area.

    Source Philips Research. The effort of these researchers provides an important next step towards the development of low-cost electronic paper, whereby in the not too distant future, receiving a daily newspaper will be as simple as unrolling a sheet of digital-paper and downloading it from your cell phone.

  1. Materials notes - properties and uses of different materials.

    = 00C * Melting point of iron is very high = 15390C * Melting point of gold is very high = 10630C * Melting point is also used to test the purity of the substance > Boiling point * Def - This is the temperature at which a substance change

  2. Advantages of CAD against traditonal methods of design.

    Cad models can be stored safely in many ways for example on USB sticks, CD?s or hard drives. This is very useful as data can be stored on many different media types so the possibility of losing the data is highly

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work