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Nano technology - Screen technology is a fast changing technology area.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

NANO TECHNOLOGY EMTM-667 UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES - DIGITAL PAPER Authors: Ed Clark, Chirag Desai, Navdeep Dhillon, Joseph Resnick, and Kevin Dong Shim Feb 24, 2004 Contents INTRODUCTION 4 DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES: TUTORIAL DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT SYSTEM SPACE 4 REAR PROJECTION 4 LCoS 4 SXRD 4 NEW COLOR SYSTEM 5 3D TV 5 ELECTRO LUMINESCENCE 5 DUAL-SIDED OEL 5 QD-OLED 5 FIELD EMITTING DEVICES 5 CARBON NANOTUBES (CNTs) 6 HyFED's 6 SED 6 HEED 6 NANOTECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITY DESCRIPTION 8 WEAKNESS/DEFICIENCY IN CURRENT EFFORTS THAT YIELD THIS OPPORTUNITY 10 CHALLENGES THAT MAY REQUIRE NANOTECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS 10 NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES 11 CARBON NANOTUBES 11 QUANTUM NANODOTS 12 DIGITAL PAPER 13 ACTIVE & PASSIVE DIGITAL PAPER 13 KEY ENABLING NANOTECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS 13 ITEMIZATION OF COMPONENTS (and how they are interconnected) 14 ADVANTAGES AND WEAKNESSES 14 ADVANTAGES 14 TECHNICAL WEAKNESS OF CURRENT SOLUTIONS 14 APPLICATIONS AND MARKETS 15 SUMMARY OF APPLICATIONS 15 DESCRIPTION AND MARKET SIZE 15 MARKET DEMOGRAPHICS 15 GLOBAL v/s UNITED STATES MARKETS 16 MAJOR DIGITAL PAPER MANUFACTURERS: GYRICON, LLC. 17 TECHNOLOGY 17 MAJOR DIGITAL PAPER MANUFACTURERS: E-INK 18 TECHNOLOGY 19 COMPETITION 20 COMPETING TECHNOLOGIES 20 ASSESS ADVANTAGES OVER COMPETING TECHNOLOGY 20 ASSESS DISADVANTAGES OVER COMPETING TECHNOLOGY 21 CONCLUSION 22 APPENDIX [A] 23 DATA AND INFORMATION SOURCES 23 Note: To update the table of contents, put the cursor anywhere in the table and press [F9]. To change the number of levels displayed, select the menu option Insert->Index and Tables, make sure the Table of Contents tab is active, and change the Number of Levels to a new value. INTRODUCTION These days, many of us spend just as much time staring at an electronic screen as we do the real world. Work, play, entertainment, communications; virtually everything we do is reliant on some kind of electronic display. CRT's (Cathode Ray Tubes), LCD's (Liquid Crystal Displays), Rear-Projection and Plasma screens are everywhere. It is obvious, then, why the race for the cheapest, lightest, highest definition, brightest and most visually appealing display has some of the ...read more.

Middle

In this case, a back-pane of electrodes is laid behind the digital paper, allowing the image to be updated as desired. Source: Gartner Dataquest (April 2003) KEY ENABLING NANOTECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS Today's digital display domain is made of up several competing display technologies all striving for many of the same goals. Particularly, companies are continuing to push the envelope for crisper and brighter displays. The reason for this is clear: human vision is capable of viewing very high resolutions, especially up close. Current technology limitations are posing hurdles to achieving this goal, however, several ideas spawned from nanotechnology research offer hope in solving this dilemma. Pixel size is the key. Current incarnations of this technology are achieving about 100 dpi, which pales in comparison to the 1,200 dpi seen in many of today's magazines (considered to have fine enough resolution for comfort and clarity). Today's already small 100 ?m embedded beads may have to be reduced in size in order to achieve the desired clarity (depending on the implementation). Advances in plastics and the ability to print components directly onto a substrate with nano-scale accuracy efficiently, have provided the current versions of digital paper the backbone needed to begin development. Advancements in nano-scale printing of electrode matrices, providing charges to 'pixels,' will allow for increased resolution and contrast. ITEMIZATION OF COMPONENTS (and how they are interconnected) Regardless of the implementation, the images or text appearing on today's digital paper is generated by a computer display driver. Sometimes sent directly to the device via the system bus, actual end user implementations of digital paper technology often have the raw data for presentation sent via wireless 802.11(x) technology. Receiving the signal from the display driver is the dynamic backbone, similar to that present in LCD and OLED technology. These matrices of electrodes are printed on a flexible substrate using some fancy chemistry, self orientating materials or screen printing techniques and are used to control the state of the individual pixels of the display. ...read more.

Conclusion

The transistors can be used to produce electronic displays that roll up. Yet people wonder if it is an innovation that they really need-or want as digital paper inches closer to reality. Past predictions that technology would eliminate the need for physical documents have proved to be wrong. Many may also wonder if digital paper will really be as sharp, flexible and portable as its advocates promise. It is rare, however, for any technology to immediately live up to its advance hype. Nearer term, DIGITAL PAPER companies will face more traditional challenges, such as working out intellectual property, royalties, and other content issues with publishers. APPENDIX [A] DATA AND INFORMATION SOURCES 1. Department of Defense Performance and Accountability Report 2003, Page 284 2. Future Watchers http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/07/16/1058035060929.html 3. Researchers chip away at FED hurdles http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20010508S0033 4. Quantum-dot LED may be screen of the future http://www.elektrik-sheep.com/story/EpuFEpEVpyMqzIGqnk.shtml 5. New LED technology: a savior for handhelds? http://www.enterprisenetworkingmagazine.com/opinionw/2003/01/24_led.shtml 6. Quantum-dot LED may be screen of choice for future electronics http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/nr/2002/dot.html 7. FEATURE: Field emission displays http://optics.org/articles/news/8/7/29/1 8. Imaging industry displays visions of the future www.electronicproducts.com/ShowPage.asp?SECTION=3700&PRIMID=&FileName=augOL1.aug2003 9. Gyricon LLC. http://www.gyricon.com/SmartPaper.asp 10. Xerox Corporation http://www.xerox.com 11. E-Ink, Inc. http://www.eink.com/technology/index.html 12. Nanotechnology WhitePaper http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/conferences/2002/pdf/presspacks/1-2-nanotech-opportunities_en.pdf 13. Nanotechnology Fact Sheet http://www.ccst.us/ccst/pubs/nano/nanofactsheet.pdf 14. Panasonic Corporation http://www.panasonic.com/ 15. Crossing the Chasm: Geoffery A. Moore Harper Collins: 1995 16. Next Generation Display Technologies http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0108/p14s01-stct.html 17. SONY: Future Display Technologies http://www.sony.com/research 18. Microsoft sets sight on future displays http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20010531S0077 19. Digital paper edges closer http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3007707.stm 20. Next digital screen could fold like paper http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0108/p14s01-stct.htm 21. Are we ready for digital paper? http://zdnet.com.com/2100-1107-856627.html 22. Digital paper promises to revolutionize publishing, Aug. 1, 2001 Issue of CIO Magazine http://www.cio.com/archive/080101/index.html 23. Different Display Technologies http://architecture.mit.edu/house_n/web/resources/tutorials/House_N%20Tutorial%20Display%20Technology.htm 24. The Market for Digital Paper: Trends and Opportunities, 1 October 2002, CAP Ventures http://www.capv.com/Store/publications/pub00225.html 25. Electronics turns over a new leaf, 2001 Physics World http://physicsweb.org/article/world/14/7/4/1 26. Electronic paper reaches video speeds, September 2003 Nature http://www.nature.com/nsu/nsu_pf/030922/030922-10.html 27. Fuji Xerox Introducing Application for Instant Photo-Addressing Electronic Paper and Stand-Alone Toner-Display-Type Electronic Paper, December 2003, NanoExpress Magazine http://www.txstate.edu/nac/documents/nanoexpressv3.pdf 28. Philips demonstrate flexible paper-like display, 4 January 2004 Nature Materials http://www.nature.com/nmat/pressrelease/jan04.html 1 ...read more.

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