• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Independent Film Industries Reinforce The Global Construction Of The Hybrid Genre" Discuss

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

David Stevens "Independent Film Industries Reinforce The Global Construction Of The Hybrid Genre" Discuss Almost every country has its own film industry. Films are being produced across the world, from the low budget gangster films of Britain's "Lock Stock and Two Smoking Barrels" and Australia's "Chopper" to the French 'art cinema' of "L'aventura" and the German action offering of "Run Lola Run". This is of course to exclude America. Hollywood is the center of the global film industry and it can be considered impossible to gain international superstardom without passing through its coiffured gates. What is it that separates Hollywood from the rest of the world? Is Hollywood the culmination of international filmic development? Has Hollywood incorporated the popular conventions of independent cinema into its mainstream as it did with the flourish of auteurs in the 60's and 70's? To answer these questions one must first consider the definition of Hollywood and Independent cinema. Pam Cook1 has defined international film industries simply as the "absence of Hollywood", this though is harsh, as cinema existed before the globalisation of Hollywood, the 'age d'or' of France in the 1920's for example. So to analyse the relationship between Hollywood and the rest of the world a definition of the differing industries must be articulated, whether it be of industrial or generic conventions. Furthermore, the role of the audience in this definition must be questioned and whether a film's origin of production actually makes a difference in the way it is consumed. Differences in films from different countries could lie in the differences in genre and its definition, even audience consumption. Each country changes conventions of particular genres to their own social climate. This Saussurian2 idea, that meaning of one thing can change by its surrounding text, can be identified within the Romantic Comedy genre. In British 'RomComs' such as "Jack and Sarah" a grainy filter is used on the camera to add a gritty realism and lead characters are often faulted and possibly not as beautiful ...read more.

Middle

This again leads to the question of the genre's popularity and a possible answer is that the gangster film had proven to be the playground for groundbreaking directors. Within independent cinema, without the narrative constraints of industry pressure, young directors have had the chance to break boundaries. Guy Ritchie's success with "Lock Stock and Two Smoking Barrels" has lead to populist imitations such as "Gangster No1" whilst "Chopper's" director Andrew Dominik created massive uproar in Australia over his sinister character study. Even within Hollywood much innovation has appeared through this genre, as the 'brat pack' of director/auteurs changed the genre single-handedly. Francis Ford Coppola created the modern gangster film with "The Godfather" whilst Martin Scorsese explored it through "Goodfellas". This popularity through directorial innovation conjures up an idea of the gratifications model as the audience searches for, as Renoir16 put it, "esoteric structure" throughout the genre. Yet again, though, industry demands must be considered as Scorsese's later works such as "Casino" could be seen as studio demands from Universal for a repeat of his success, equally so could Coppolla's return to "The Godfather" in 1990 funded by Paramount. Therefore, the auteur can be seen as becoming diluted and formulaic, only supplying a global industry and therefore aiding the construction of the hybrid genre. Going back to simple ideas of narrative could also help explain this popularity, as Propp's17 characters can be seen, for example in "Donnie Brasco", Depp is the hero, Pachino the helper, Heche the prize and Madson the Villain. Similarly in the German "Run Lola Run", Lola is the heroine, Manni the prize and Ronnie the villain. Another prevailing narrative similarity is that of Todorov's18 equilibrium, for example "Casino" starts with Sam having a bookkeeper's job, the chaos ensues with his attempt at running a casino, then equilibrium returns once more as he again becomes a bookkeeper. This all points to the same conclusion, that despite independent innovation, globalisation has lead to the unification of the gangster genre, a pattern repeated across film and epitomised with the tentpole blockbuster, such as the kung foo/western/action hybrid "Shanghai Noon". ...read more.

Conclusion

Differences in production caused by budget are becoming less severe as independent producers receive Hollywood backing. Narrative comparisons can be made as well as links in location of filming be seen. By catering to the new global audience, independent cinema actually adds to the knowledge that can be drawn upon by mainstream directors in their manipulation of codes and conventions. This is how independent cinema paradoxically perpetuates global generic hybridity and therefore mainstream cinema. 1 Taken from "The Cinema Book", Pam Cook, published by BFI 2 Taken from "The Media Students Books", Routledge, 1996 3 Taken from "Advanced Studies in Media", Nelson, 1998 4 Taken from "Approaches To Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 5 Taken from "The Media Students Book", Routledge, 1996 6 Taken from "Approaches to Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 7 Taken from "Studying the Media", Arnold, 1994 8 Taken from "Approaches to Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 9 Taken from "Sociology in Action", Harra Lambosse and Holborne 10 Taken from "Approaches to Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 11 Taken from "The Media Students Handbook". Routledge, 1996 12 Taken from "Approaches to Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 13 Stuart Hall, www.aber.ac.uk/media/students 14 Mulvey and considerations of psychoanalytical feminist theory, taken from "Approaches to Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 15 Taken from "Approaches to Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 16 Taken from "The Cinema Book", Pam Cook, BFI 17 Taken from "The Media Students Handbook", Routledge, 1996 18 Taken from "The Media Students Handbook", Routledge, 1996 19 Taken from "The Media Students Handbook", Routledge, 1996 20 Examples of these characteristics being; downbeat and gritty for Warner's and glamorous and glossy for MGM. 21 Information taken from "The Daily Mirror" 22 Taken from "Approaches to Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 23 John Woo was recognised for his successes in Hong Kong cinema with films such as "Hard Boiled" he was then recruited to Hollywood, directing, among others, "Face/Off" and Mission Impossible: Two". 24 Taken from "Sociology in Action", Harra Lambosse and Holborne 25 Taken from "Approaches to Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 26 Taken from "Approaches to Popular Film", Manchester University, 1995 VI ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Plays section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Plays essays

  1. log book

    People kept forgetting there lines also and they have had weeks to learn them which was also a let down. Instead of learning lines now I have suggested that they keep reading the script and just say something along the lines it doesn't have to be word perfect.

  2. How do the codes and conventions of a genre make Trainspotting a success?

    a boost when they see that you can if you try, as Mark has shown us. The codes and conventions in Trainspotting make the film a success as people are able to either relate to what is happening or they are more aware of what drugs can do to you.

  1. How does the opening sequence of Moulin Rouge inform the audiences understanding of the ...

    Toulouse sings the line "The greatest gift you'll ever learn is just to love and be loved in return", simultaneously Christian types these words and the diegetic sound of the typewriter keys can be heard. The sound switches from diegetic to non-diegetic - the typewriter and Toulouse's song - to

  2. In this essay, I will analyse how the producers of 'Shrek' have constructed the ...

    "Wanted ogres, Reward", this piece of dramatic irony, adds humour rather than worry or fear to the viewers reaction, because the audience are aware of Shrek's humour and his larger than life character therefore consequently know that it will take a lot of people to cease and capture this creature.

  1. How do the cinematic codes, specifically mise-en-scene and sound, in the opening sequence of ...

    He is sitting on the floor, hunched over, looking dejected, surrounded by shadows and clutter. The first shot we see of Christian is a long shot that signifies to the audience that Christian is small, lost and alone. The camera tracks towards him to a close up that shows the

  2. Wish you could banish it into room 101? Well my guest for tonight has ...

    (Audience laugh and break into applause) Jenna: Oh that reminds me; my mum told me that he used to get so lonely when I wasn't there so he used to get loads of attention and have my mum call him Pauly! (Audience laugh and Paul goes red)

  1. Baz Lurhman describes 'Moulin Rouge' as "Audience Participation Cinema" - With close reference to ...

    After the establishing shot of the city of Paris, the camera zooms extremely fast into the area of Montmartre in Paris, causing the spectator to feel as though they are on a roller-coaster ride as the camera twists and turns through the streets of Paris until it reaches Montmartre.

  2. In this essay I will be analysing in depth four scenes from Baz Luhrmann's ...

    This mood change is emphasized by the change in colour and music as well. The speed in which the story is told quickens up. The clothes that the characters are wearing are very unreal to relate to the 'fairytale' story.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work