• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigate the effects of an audience being present during a sporting task.

Extracts from this document...


Introduction. In 1982 Michaels at al. tested the theory that, having an audience to view a sporting task would facilitate the performance of well-learned behaviours and inhibit the performance of poorly practiced ones. He did this by studying pool players in a collage union building. They were unaware of him categorizing them into two groups of six players, one above average and one below. He then placed four observers to watch the players and once again observed them play. He used the independent variable as the pool players' ability and the dependant variable as the performance of the pool player. The design he used was independent measures. The results he obtained were that, when being observed, the above average players increased their shot accuracy to 80% as compared to the 71% when they were not observed. However, the below average players got worse, with their shot accuracy decreasing from 36% to 25% when being observed. This research identifies with Zajonc's theory (1965) of "Performance is facilitated and learning is impaired but the presence of spectators". Another example of this theory being observed is MacCracken and Stadulis (1985). Using eight-year-old children to complete a balancing task. ...read more.


I made sure that the right to withdraw was fully outlined in the consent form, which each participant signed. The participants were put under no pressure to either keep their results as part of the study or to withdraw them. This "Right to withdraw" option was also available at any time during or after the experiment was completed. Participants The target population for this experiment were the girls from Dame Allan's school in Newcastle, aged between 16 and 18 who had previously had only limited netballing experience (only compulsory physical education lessons), and netball players aged between 16 and 18 who represent Tyne and Wear county, playing netball. The sampling method used was that of opportunity sampling, 40 people were asked (10 of each ability) to take part, therefore gaining a sample of 20 participants from my study. I chose this sampling method as participants had to be willing and able to take part in this study. It was inexpensive and quick to select them and also the parent population of the Tyne and Wear netball County under 18 squad is limited to 20 people so therefore a method of stratified sampling could have proved difficult. ...read more.


However, there were some anomalous results, not all of the experienced players performances improved, one experienced players score decreased from 3 scored in condition A, to 2 in condition B and another was 5 shots decreasing to 3. Indeed some of the non-expert players scores increased, From 1 to 3 in condition B. Some scores stayed the same in both conditions, most notably with the experienced players, 2 of them scored 5 shots in each condition, however this also happened with the non-experienced players, but their equal scores were lower, 0 and 0 then 1 and 1. There was some overlap in the scores, in condition A, 7 non expert players scored equal or a better number of shots than that of the experts. Whilst in condition B, 3 non-experts scores were equal to that of their counterparts, the experts, however non were above. (See discussion for further reference). As a result of these values and averages, the null hypothesis can be rejected as there was a difference in the two sets of scores and the experimental hypothesis of, "It's predicted that there will be a difference in the performance (number of shots scored) with an audience present, or not, between experienced, well-practiced county level netball players and in-experienced non-netball players." Can be supported. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Plays section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Plays essays


    she was born until her present stage where she is now classified as an old person. In order to do this we needed a real life story which will give us a case study to focus on. Each member of my group looked through a number of newspapers in hope

  2. GCSE Drama: Portfolio of Evidence. Task 2: Development Phase

    This speech comes to a climax towards the end as his volume increases and he begins to stand up in triumph and pride for his company's wellbeing and gratitude to all of his employees' hard work input. He was somewhat arrogant before he sat down at his seat and did the monologue at the A.G.M.

  1. Language of Performing Arts

    In the drama piece proxemics was used to communicate that what I had to say is private, important and maybe upsetting for the other person, I managed to show this when giving Zainab news on the hostage situation by sitting close to her.

  2. Drama coursework: Slavetrade - Development ...

    My role as the narrator was to describe the way the 'white man' came and took my people out of the village, marched us across Africa to the slave ships and portray the mental hurt of what I suffered has/is causing (caused) me as I recall it. The scene (Act)

  1. A.I Coursework

    That is why in the film the robots are excited about finding David as he knew real live humans. Some people would argue over robot rights as the human robots could be defined as living entities because they would have minds of their own.

  2. Evaluating The Silence Of The Lambs.

    trying to be as elegant as possible trying not to alert Buffalo Bill of her whereabouts. The music builds up suspense and tension here as she is escaping the light by walking down the stairs and into terrible danger. The sharp contrast of light to dark is really shown as

  1. An Experiment to Investigate How an Active Audience Will Affect a Skilled or Unskilled ...

    These participants were timed at how long it took to wind 150 times round the reel, and these times were recorded. It was found that participants were 1 percent faster when put with another participant, than when alone. This shows that their performance improved.

  2. My task for the controlled condition test was to construct a 15-minute presentation centred ...

    Some parts of the performance may have been more appropriate in communicating through drama than others and so we felt it necessary to begin our performance using drama and slowly integrate dance once a sufficient understanding of the storyline had been introduced.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work