• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Zorba the Greek by Nikos Kazantzakis - How does Nikos Kazantzakis portray Zorba as personifying the Dionysiac character and the Epicurean philosophy of life?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

WORLD LITERATURE PAPER Zorba the Greek by Nikos Kazantzakis How does Nikos Kazantzakis portray Zorba as personifying the Dionysiac character and the Epicurean philosophy of life? In the book by the recognised Greek author Nikos Kazantzakis, Zorba, the main character is an avatar of the Dionysiac nature and practitioner of the Epicurean philosophy of the pursuit of earthly hapiness. The word dionysiac is derived from the name of the ancient Greek god Dionysus, who was the god of wine, fertility and drama. Similarly the word Epicurean derives from the philosopher, Epicurus (270 BC.), who denied the existence of any after lives or other worlds and said that we must live so as to content ourselves and others. Epicurus and his philosophy have been controversial for over two millennia. One reason is our tendency to reject pleasure as a moral good. We usually think of charity, compassion, humility, wisdom, honor, justice, and other virtues as morally good and pleasure as, at best, morally neutral, but for Epicurus, behavior in pursuit of pleasure assured an upright life. "It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and honorably and justly, and it is impossible to live wisely and honorably and justly without living pleasantly. Whenever any one of these is lacking, when, for instance, the man is not able to live wisely, though he lives honorably and justly, it is impossible for him to live a pleasant life" [Epicurus, Sovran Maxims]. ...read more.

Middle

80-81). Instead of using words to tell his own life history, he dances it. Words are mere verbal sounds, which originate in rational thought. Movement is, in contrast to speaking or writing, fundamentally of the body. It is not just movement, it is insanity embodied in one's body language that Zorba represents. Verbal language is simply incapable of conveying Zorba's entire ideas due to the complex simplicity of them. Boss's asking Zorba to teach him to dance in the end of the novel is the symbolic representation of the completion of Boss's education by Zorba. "'Come on, Zorba,' I cried, 'teach me to dance!' [...] Off we go, then, Zorba! My life has changed!'" Boss has reached a spiritual level to comprehend and follow Zorbatic way of living life. The new realm of faith without hope and passion without fake ultimate compassion was formed in his soul and mind on the ruins of the mountain cable, symbolising false hopes and aspirations of the materialistic world. Zorba pointed to Boss at his real self, the Epicurean naturalist and materialist, who enjoys the moment and lives every day as his last. Boss inherited Zorba's Dionysiac religion. He is not afraid anymore to express his emotions and he wants to learn Zorba's language of dance. ...read more.

Conclusion

The fact that Zorba is a Dionysiac icon and a true Epicurean is strikingly manifested on the last page of the book, where Kazantzakis masterfully describes the dramatic death of Zorba. After uttering his last words, he stood up and "brushed us all roughly aside, jumped out of bed and went to the window. There he gripped the frame, looked out far into the mountains, opened wide his eyes and began to laugh, then to whinny like a horse. It was thus, standing, with his nails dug into the window frame, that death came to him" (p. 335). Even when dying, Zorba did what he felt like in that single minute. His last act of resistance against death and his superhuman strength in going to the window to gaze a last time at the beauty of the life and the world is a motion of his nature. His death is abnormal and crazy. Forcing oneself to stand, brushing away healthy strong people, digging nails into the window frame and whinnying like a wild horse is not what is associated with death bed scenes and this underlines the special personality and temperament of Zorba. To the end, Zorba remains himself, clearing to the Dionysiac personality and the Epicurean idea of total engagement in life. ?? ?? ?? ?? Emil Sierczynski Page 1 10/05/2007 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Theatre Studies section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Theatre Studies essays

  1. 2 Scenes From The Play “Whose Life Is It Anyway” And How I Would ...

    So the director has to display all of Ken's feelings through his voice. Ken can only do this by using the tone of his voice and by facial expressions. This is a very difficult obstacle that defies the director. The director has to be intensely precise on how Ken delivers

  2. Developmental Process. To explore the different aspects of city life, we all came ...

    disease ended up having more attacks than she due to the winter weather triggering the attacks. Whilst we had various people off ill during the time of October-December we found it was difficult trying to run different scenes with the absence of different people as they had a key part

  1. The Greek Theatre

    To add to the image of unity and stature, identical masks would have also been worn. Masks were made from materials of the time: wood, feathers, ceramic or material. As the chorus had to have fifteen masks I believe they would have opted for a durable yet easily workable material such as wood with little or no decoration.

  2. The Life and Works of Bertolt Brecht

    Brecht's Epic theatre challenged the illusion of the theatre. He wanted his audience to be awake and alert, and he invited them to question what was happening on stage. He left the conflicts and problems totally unresolved at the end of the play so that the audience member had something to resolve in his life in the real world.

  1. It's All Greek To Me - drama piece

    (They narrate what they are doing, i.e. putting it into a conversation) STAGE IS LIT COMPLETELY. Athena enters from stage left and Eris from stage right. They meet centre stage and start to argue (which has been caused by the opening of the box). They argue about Zeus being Athena's dad and the fact that she gets everything and Eris doesn't.

  2. Two scenes from the play "Whose Life Is It Anyway" and how I would ...

    Ken takes a different reaction to all the different characters in the play. He is frolic towards the characters that treat him like a human and irate towards those who consider him an invalid. He doesn't talk about his personal life throughout the play until Mrs.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work