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Globalization Globalization has become one of the principal symbols of economic, cultural and political life in the 21st century. Although there is no precise definition of globalization, due to the complexity of the term and the varying attitudes towards it, put simply it is the process by which nationality is becoming all the time more irrelevant. However, it is obviously more complicated an issue than that, it has also being defined as 'a set of processes which represents a change in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions, expressed in transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity'. (Held & McGrew 00:55) Others define it as 'the widening, intensifying, speeding up, and growing impact of world-wide interconnectedness.' (www.polity.co.uk) In layman's terms, globalization is basically the means by which people around the globe are now more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow more swiftly than ever and goods and services produced in one part of the globe are progressively more obtainable worldwide. International travel is also more frequent and international communication is routine. While there can be no uncertainty about many of the modern day phenomenon's being recent developments, such as the internet for example, globalization it is argued, has been an ongoing process for some time. Perhaps the first sign of globalization occurred centuries if not millennia ago, at which time spices were been imported into Europe and Egypt from Asia. ...read more.
(www.freetrade.org/issues) For less developed countries, globalization offers access to foreign capital, global export markets, and advanced technology while breaking the monopoly of inefficient domestic producers. Faster growth, in turn, promotes poverty reduction, democratisation, and higher environmental standards. While globalization may confront government officials with more difficult choices, it raises the productivity and living standards of people in countries that open themselves to the global marketplace. The result for their citizens is greater individual freedom. Globalization has been coupled with reductions in pollution levels. The theory is simple; market competition imposes a never-ending drive for efficiency and innovation. Since pollution results from the waste of a resource input, rising industrial competency results in lowered pollution. Economic expansion has also generated the required prosperity to invest in pollution control. A study in America showed that between 1970 and 1997, total air pollution actually decreased by about 31 percent. (www.cascadepolicy.org) Globalization offers numerous advantages, but we need a more careful consideration of the relative advantages of markets and states if we are to realize them. (www.humanities. mcmaster.ca) The Negative Impacts of Globalization In contrast to the above arguments in favour of globalization, there are opponents who insist that globalization is indeed a negative development for humanity. They regard it with hostility, believing that it increases inequality within and between nations. (www.imf.org) Globalization sceptics offer their own definition of globalization; they perceive it to be 'the rapid expansion of coordinated trade and economic development around the world, without the same incorporation of human rights and labour standards.' ...read more.
Her point is a valid one because although the internet has made it easier for people to publicly display feelings of hatred and racism, freedom of expression is a basic human right and cannot be revoked. Conclusion In concluding this debate on globalization, it is important to note that it has a dual nature. Globalization bodes both good and ill for mankind. It's significantly altering the traditional Westphalian state system, upon which the fundamental principles of global politics have been based since its inception in 1648. Globalization challenges the viability of such a non-transnational system in this age of information, leading to criticisms that it's somewhat of an outdated entity. However, the role of the Nation-State should not be undermined. Despite this concern, the opportunities of globalization represent great power, along with great promise. The march of globalization continues, and with each step it takes, socio-economic and political changes and tensions are unearthed. The task ahead is not to try and reverse globalization, which would be a futile effort in any case, but instead to harness its positive potential while managing its adverse effects. So it's now up to mankind to determine whether or not the power will be cleverly used, and the promise fulfilled. The bottom line is that to argue the inherent merits and dangers of globalization may obscure the fact that globalization is here to stay whether we like it or not. ?? ?? ?? ?? 11/10 ...read more.
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