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Drug trafficking and abuse/adiction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

CONTENTS: Number: Pages: 1. Introduction 2-4 Chapter 1. Concept, Manifestations and Tendencies of Drug Abuse 4-14 2. The Concept and Manifestation of Drug Abuse 4-11 3. Tendencies of Development 11-14 Chapter II. System and Classification of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse 14-22 4. System of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse 14-17 5. Classification of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse 17-22 Chapter III. Drug Abuse in the International Law 22-38 6. International Fora and Legal Acts on Drugs 22-34 7. Tendencies in the World Community's Reaction to Drug Abuse. 34-37 Chapter IV. Measures to Suppress and Prevent Drug Abuse 37-40 Chapter V. Organized Measures to Counteract Narcotics 40-57 8. General Provisions for Counteracting Narcotics 41-45 9. Organization of Medical Counteraction to Narcotics 45-49 10. Enforcement of Legal Measures of Narcotics Counteraction 50-53 11. Other Organizational Measures to Combat Narcotics 53-57 12. Conclusion 57-58 Introduction The 20th century has witnessed the spread of narcotics to the entire world. In the past narcotics in the natural economy were confined to territories where drug-bearing plants were grown. By the end of century drug addiction has become a worldwide socially dangerous trend. Narco-dealers making fabulous profits infect more and more people and even entire social groups with drug addiction. Narcotics have long since gone beyond the borders of traditional drug-producing areas and have infiltrated all the countries of the world, exerting its malicious effect on their peoples. It has affected social, economic, political and biological aspects of life. Statistics is constantly reporting the spread of drug addiction and the growth in the number of drug addicts on file at medical institutions, as well as the rise in officially recorded drug-related crimes. Drug abuse has become a real plague of the 20th century in many countries of the world and may become the plague of this country in particular. The pleasurable sensations of comfort and satisfaction that a person experiences using narcotics is much greater than that of alcohol thus making the repetition necessary. ...read more.

Middle

They were the Uniform Convention on Drugs of 1961 amended later by the 1972 Protocol on Drugs, and the United Nations Convention of 1988 which provided for action against the illegal trafficking of narcotics and psychotropic substances. One need not think however that the provisions of the earlier approved acts were so out-dated that they required to be radically changed. The two Conventions left intact therefore many time-tested provisions of the above-cited documents. At present they form the main legal foundation for the system helping exercise international cooperation and control over drugs. The Uniform Convention of 1961: The 1961 Uniform Convention regulates questions pertaining to the legal use of drugs. Its adoption was a landmark in the development of relations based on international law. The Convention is designed to promote decisive actions against narcotics at the international level through the building of a system of international cooperation and control over narcotics. In fact, this one document is a substitute for all the previously accepted international acts (with the exception of some points of the 1936 Convention). It diminished the number of international bodies in charge of the control over narcotics, and established control over the production of drug-bearing raw materials. The participants in the Convention expressed the wish to sign a universally accepted international convention to limit the use of narcotics to medical and scientific purposes only and to maintain permanent international cooperation in order to accomplish the principles and aims of the Convention. The parties to the Convention pledged to adopt not only necessary legislative measures, as the case had been here-to fore, but also administrative measures and to ensure fulfillment of the Convention's decisions. They took upon themselves to limit the production, exportation, importation, distribution, use, storage, and trade in narcotics and limit their use and storage for medical purposes exclusively in order to diminish sufferings and pain. Instead of the previous four international agencies, which controlled narcotics, the Convention authorized the formation of just two: the Commission on Drugs under the UN Economic and Social Council and the newly formed International Committee on Drug Control of the United Nations Organization. ...read more.

Conclusion

Its geographic and geopolitical position makes the Russian Federation a convenient trans-shipment point on the road from Asia to other former Soviet republics and on to Europe. The Russian government, its law-enforcement agencies, in particular, must, as a result, check illegal attempts to take drugs across the national border, bolster up its customs services and see to it that they upgrade their performance and work in close cooperation with the territorial and traffic police and other agencies expected to carry out programs of action against narcotics. The newly gained independence requires that the Russian Federation confront two problems directly related to narcotics and efforts to overcome it. First of all, borders between Russia and other former Soviet republics show the highest degree of transparency, i.e. border-crossing presents almost no problem. Given the geographic and geopolitical position of Russia, the transparency of the national border aggravates the problem of drug smuggling and calls for the need to essentially fortify the border and better customs control along it. Secondly, there is the problem of international relations in the field of narcotics and international efforts to deal with it. There are two angles to this second problem. Now that it has gained sovereignty, Russia has to assume upon itself the functions of establishing and maintaining international relations, especially since it represents a sort of a link in the chain that ties drug- producers and drug-consuming regions together. The second angle of this problem lies in the fact that once being a part of the Soviet Union, Russian Federation neither faced nor could possibly face obstacles concerning the jurisdiction of its anti-crime effort, including crimes committed on territories of different Soviet republics. Now that they are sovereign nations, the former Soviet republics have national borders, which, transparent as they are, make legal action against criminal elements possible only in the context of international relations and in keeping with international agreements. This, naturally, complicates the timely launching of operational and investigative actions aimed at solving criminal cases including those of drug-trafficking. 1 1 ...read more.

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