• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Examine the effectiveness of economic sanctions as a tool of statecraft.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Examine the effectiveness of economic sanctions as a tool of statecraft. Introduction Since the end of the cold war the international community has seen the significantly increased use of economic sanctions as a tool of statecraft. Economic sanctions 'appeared to offer the promise of effective Security Council action to resolve conflict and enforce international legal norms without the use of military force' (Cortright and Lopez, 2000, p.2). This report will evaluate if the aims of political leaders, who have increasingly used economic sanctions, have been realised or if they have failed to achieve their intended impact. Measuring Effectiveness It appears that political scientists in this area of study harbour differing views on how the effectiveness of economic sanctions should be measured. Baldwin argues that 'the mere imposition of economic sanctions should automatically qualify as success' (Baldwin, 1985, p.372) therefore if this is to be believed then an economic sanction should be considered a successful just because of its implementation, even if it is ineffective in its goals hoped for by the sender countries government. However most scholars are not so quick to brand economic sanctions a success with Hufbauer, Schott and Elliot agreed that 'in judging the success in sanctions, we confine our examination to changes in the policies and capabilities of the target country' (Elliot, Haufbauer and Schott, 1990, p.3). So the effectiveness of sanctions, if their analysis is to be considered, is ultimately measured by whether the target state changes a certain policy that might stop sanctions, or if its capabilities militarily, economically or politically are hindered. ...read more.

Middle

(Source: UNITED NATIONS FOOD & AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION'S, 1996) If sanctions are killing thousands of children and they are not reaching their targets in Iraq and other countries, which is evident through Saddam's continuing reign of terror and obvious wealth then sanctions cannot be labelled effective. This pursuit of national interests through sanctions appears to link them with realist political thoughts. The U.S is a prime example of this with it being a 'state forced to help itself and give priority to its own national interest' (Heywood, 1997, P.143). If sanctions are implemented to prevent any kind of hardship or grievance to the sender country, even if it means adverse humanitarian effects then they are part of a realist form of statecraft. * Sanctions have caused humanitarian crisis in the past Bosnian conflict. Seemingly doing the right thing the U.S and her allies imposed an arms embargo on Bosnia so that fighting would be forced to a stop once the ammunition ran out. However 'the arms embargo weakened the Muslims since the Bosnian Serbs and the Croats had larger stores of military supplies and greater access to outside sources' (Haas, 1997, P.77). This shows how sanctions in the past have been very difficult to implement without there being adverse humanitarian consequences, and highlights how in the past sanctions have not been thought through and have proved ineffective. The simple implementation of this sanction as a symbol of U.S opposition to military violence, as taken from Baldwin's perspective, holds no credibility in this case. ...read more.

Conclusion

This greater effectiveness of multilateral sanctions depends on 'two expectations: that greater co-operation will increase the economic punishment on target states and, more critically, that increased punishment will make targets more likely to concede' (Pape, 1997, P.108) so greater co-operation is fruitless if it signals no extra cost to the target country. Overall it is the findings of this paper that 'economic sanctions are ineffective in the aggregate' (Drury, 2000, P.624) and have been over used in the past by states who are reluctant to embark on a military campaign but still want to signal to the world that they will not put up with the behaviour of the target state. Most of the literature supports this with most scholars agreeing that 'sanctions should rather be implemented as part of a broader strategy' (Barber, 1997, P.374) with the threat of military force if sanctions fail. It has often been the case that without the threat of military force behind them, sanctions have failed to convince the rulers of the target states to concede to the sender's demands. Also the humanitarian consequences in the past have been so great that it appears that sanctions have no place in a Liberal Democratic world, even though they have only been used more recently since the consolidation of Liberal Democracy in the majority of the world's politics. The preventing of Humanitarian consequences should be seen as vital in ensuring the future use and effectiveness of economic sanctions. Until all of these problems are resolved and politicians rethink their strategies regarding sanctions we will continue to see, overall, the ineffectiveness of economic sanctions. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level UK, European & Global Economics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level UK, European & Global Economics essays

  1. Where does the World Trade Organisation fit in the overall scheme of international public ...

    could say that nineteenth century trade policy was a matter of national adaptation to external conditions through national policies and institutions (at least for the Western powers and the white colonies, if not for the non-white dependent colonies). This remains the case today, although, since the 1930s and 40s, regional

  2. In what ways is the government attempting to increase the willingness to wor

    Along those years inflation reached a trough of just above 0.5% in 2000. Unemployment however has dropped significantly since 1993. Until 1999 unemployment dropped sharply after then it's been quite steady hovering in and around the 3% mark. Low inflation and low unemployment has been mainly due to supply side policies that the government has introduced.

  1. A view from the bridge - Examine the manliness hostility and aggression and the ...

    One of the main moments of dramatic tension that shows Eddie's view to the audience is when Eddie suddenly kisses Rodolpho. The stage directions say: "Eddie pins his arms, laughing, and suddenly kisses him". What Eddie has done seems to be a test of whether Rodolpho is really a homosexual,

  2. Islamic terrorism is a serious problem for the United States because of the threat ...

    Tehran conducted 13 assassinations in 1997, the majority of which were carried out in northern Iraq against the regime's main opposition groups. In January of 1997, Iranian agents tried to attack the Baghdad headquarters of Mujahedin-e Khalq using a supermortar.

  1. European background to the scramble for Africa (1850 to 1900)

    He establishes a weekly newsletter "The West African mail" and conducts speaking tours around Britain. * The British government responds to Morels actions by sending the diplomat Roger Casement to the CFS in 1903 to investigate the conditions there. * 1903 - The British House of Commons declare, " The

  2. What as the impact of China's re-engagement with the international community been on its ...

    The economic reform programme of Deng's actions gradually started to spread to the rest of the country. During this era, China looked out of its own country than ever and it seemed to have better relations with other countries also.

  1. By the mid nineteenth century, Britain had been the world's strongest economic power for ...

    Britain is compared with Germany on the scale and provision of education, particularly technical and further education. Germany had more than fifty-eight thousand full time students compared to the nine thousand in Britain, at the onset of the First World War.

  2. In this report, we shall explore the reasons for the shift from multilateralism to ...

    This is due to the diverse economic goals, culture and living standard in Asian countries. Moreover, since liberalisation in Asian countries had been successful without the need to change their economic institution, they have been generally distrustful of regional agreements, which are deemed to be less successful.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work