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Explain these words/ phrases: Spheres of Influence

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Introduction

Assignment 1 Explain these words/ phrases: Spheres of Influence A sphere of influence is the area in which another powers or countries wishes to exert its influence so that no hostile government or ideology can take root there. For example, the United States of America regards Central America as coming within its sphere of influence. During the 1980s the US tried to overthrw the communist Sandinista regime in Nicaragua. Another example is before the fall of the USSR. Before its fall in 1991, the it regarded Eastern Europe as its sphere of influence, which is why it felt justified in invading Czecholovakia in 1968 when that country appeared to be adopting more liberal policies. Singapore could also be regarded waithin the English sphere of influence because we have adapted their form of government and law. Monopoly Monopoly is the exclusive control of something. In econmics, it refers to the exclusive control of a commodity or servie ina given market-which leads to higher prices for the consumer. In some countrys monopolies are not common because of their anti-trust laws. An example would be the United States of America. Monopoly also refers to an exclusive privilege, granted by the state or country, of engaging in a particular business or providing a service. In the 17th century, the Dutch took control of Malaka and controlled the spice trade in Java. The Dutch made sure that other European powers could not trade in the Malay Archipelago and only allowed the Europeans trade at Batavia in Java. ...read more.

Middle

Imperialism Imperialism is the policy that aims at building and maintaining an empire, in which many states and peoples, spread over a wide area, are controlled by one dominant state. Imperialism is the opposite of the principle of self-determination, which is the more generally accepted creed today. Imperialism had existed from the times of Alexander the Great. Examples of great Empires are the Roman Empire, which existed two thousand years ago and the English Empire in the 19th to 21st Century. Colonialism Colonialism is the system whereby a state acquires and rules colonies. It could also be system or policy by which a nation maintains or advocates such control or influence on a state. An example of a colony is Hong Kong, for example, which is a colony of Great Britain, until 1997, when China takes over responsibility for it. Many colonies have a limited amount of self-government. Territory. that is ruled by another state. EIC The EIC or East India Company is a British trading company formed by British tradera and merchants. It is one of the most unique and important organizations in the British colonial history. On October 16, 1599, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted a licence to the EIC, awarding it a monopoly of the trade with the East. The company made huge profits from the sale of pepper acquired from Sumatra and Java and sold in London. ...read more.

Conclusion

The shift of goods to Europe (tea, sugar, pepper and tin) was bad for the Company. The Company fell into serious debt and only with considerable government support could it hope to overcome these problems. Both the States General and the States of Holland were prepared to supply extensive credits because tremendous economic interests were involved. The collapse of the Company would be disastrous for the cities where the chambers were located. The Company, however, was trapped in a vicious circle and despite the considerable financial support there was too little money to send sufficient ships and personnel to Asia. On 26th December 1794, almost two hundred years after the adventurous departure of the first four ships the final VOC ship left the roadsted at Texel. The next day it reached Duins where it was confiscated by the English. The same thing happened to many returning ships in 1795. Batavia could only be reached under a neutral flag. The English took over the Dutch trading posts one by one and eventually the VOC could no longer bear the consequences of the Fourth English War. The Company was nationalized , personnel dismissed, ships sold and shipyards closed. In 1803 the Chambers of Delft, Hoorn and Enkhuizen were dissolved. The final patent expired on December 31, 1799and the government took over all outstanding debts to the amount of 119 million guilders. In 1805 trade was de-controlled. The future showed a completely different relation between Holland and East India. It was a sad and quiet end of a glorious trading company. Cheong May Anne (5) 2/11 ...read more.

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