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Explain why the Anglo-Dutch Treaty was signed in 1824.

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Introduction

Assignment Our Modern Beginnings: The Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1a) Explain why the Anglo-Dutch Treaty was signed in 1824. Raffles' founding of Singapore in 1819 much angered the Dutch. They complained to the British, claiming that Singapore was part of the Johore Empire ruled by Sultan Abdul Rahman, whom they recognized and who had placed his empire under Dutch protection So Singapore was under their sphere of influence. Therefore the British had intruded into their territory and they demanded the British to leave Singapore or they will use force. At first the British contemplated to return Singapore, but did not do it. Between 1819 and 1824, there was a paper war between the British and Dutch. As time passed, Singhapore began to develop and proved its worth. The British thus was reluctant to give Singapore up. Great tension emerged between the two countries but both did not declare war. The Anglo- Dutch Treaty was signed to prevent a war from happening because in the first place both parties where not ready to go into war and also to resolve the problem of Singapore. The treaty was also signed to maintain friendship between the two countries. ...read more.

Middle

Located there was the dying S Sultanate of Brunei. Lucky a British James Brooke arrived there in 1839 seeing the people living simple and unsophisticated lives, he wanted to improve it by bringing to them what he saw as the benefits of British civilisation, without destroying the basic simplicity of their lives The Sultan of Brunei made concessions of territory in 1877. In 1906 Britain appointed a Resident to Brunei in order to supervise the state, modernise its administrative structures and ensure its survival against its predatory Sarawak neighbour. After the signing of the Anglo-Dutch treaty, British were set in creating an environment for economic expansion. The tin industry which had boomed in the 1840s continued to grow, moving from Chinese to Western control in the 20th century when capital-intensive mechanisation of the industry arrived. In the first decade of the 20th century rubber cultivation boomed. By 1930 two thirds of the cultivated land on the Peninsula would be under rubber. Malay dominate the world in the production of tin and rubber. made the Peninsula one of Britain's most valued imperial possessions Crops such as pepper, sugar and coffee were largely swept aside by rubber after 1900. ...read more.

Conclusion

By the end of the 19th century Java was the world's largest sugar producer. By the beginning of the 20th century most Javanese no longer owned land, working as tenant farmers, share croppers or wage labourers in the local area and nearby towns. The economic transformation of Sumatra in the first thirty years of the 20th century was equally dramatic. Huge areas of virgin forest made way for tobacco and rubber plantations. Sumatra became one of the world's largest and finest suppliers of tobacco .When oil was discovered in the 1920s the Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company was started. The economic transformation of Indonesia led to urbanisation. The cities were over-populated and living conditions were bad. The colonial government lacked the political will to tackle these urban problems. By the 1920s the problems were probably beyond its capacity to solve. Living conditions for most urban Indonesians steadily worsened from the 1920s through to the 1970s. The Dutch introduced western education in order to provide the skilled labour needed by the expanding colonial economy. Even so, at the end of the Dutch colonial era the literacy rate in Indonesia was lower than in that of any other European colony in Asia, with the exception of the Portuguese colony of East Timor. 0 Cheong May Anne (5) 2/11 ...read more.

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