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Gianina Hospedales

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Introduction

The now developed countries were never underdeveloped although they may have been undeveloped. Discuss What is development? Development is economic independence from foreign powers. Countries such as the United States and The United Kingdom can be considered as 'developed' countries. The most important obstacle to development is political: Governments believe that they could manage economic development better than the free market. Most Third World countries for e.g. the Caribbean, lack investment capital. Private entrepreneurs prefer to invest in safer markets of the West than in their own countries. According to Andre Gunder Frank, "Third world countries may be undeveloped at the start, but they have never been underdeveloped at the start. They were undeveloped in comparison with developed, but they were never underdeveloped. They were created into underdevelopment." ...read more.

Middle

Underdevelopment is an active part of impoverishment as a result of development which means that some parts of the world become underdeveloped because others are developed. Economic growth in 'first world' countries created the 'third world' poverty. It does not necessarily mean that the third world countries are poor compared to the more developed countries but it is poor because of the industrialization of North America and Europe which impoverished the third world societies because of colonialism and extractive ways of trading. Before modern economic growth the larger countries did not have proper means of connecting to each other for trade because specific networks were not yet created. Through the spread of Capitalism, the ongoing search for profits and monetary gain had begun through the production of goods for example sugar in colonies such as the Caribbean. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another example is Haiti and how it has been exploited for raw materials. Haiti is now the poorest country in the Caribbean but once produced half of all the sugar and coffee consumed in Europe as well as other products such as indigo and cotton which helped to boost quite a large amount of France's economy. This shows that development comes at a cost and that results in the creation of underdevelopment. For the refining of materials and minerals such as bauxite, tin and iron the developed countries relied on cheap or slave labour which left many of the world's populations devastated while the advanced countries gained wealth. The developed countries were never underdeveloped because they always found ways of gaining wealth through their colonies all over the world yet, it resulted in the underdevelopment of those colonies which had long term effects of impoverishment. Dependency theory sees international capitalism as the ruin of the third world. ...read more.

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