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International entrepreneurship in Europe

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INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN EUROPE 1.Introduction The rapid globalization of world markets has encouraged companies of all sizes to expand internationally. With the economy booming, the opportunities have never been better for entrepreneurs, and this wide-ranging resource offers something for business pioneers of all stripes. As defined by McDougall and Oviatt (2000), international entrepreneurship (IE) is: "a combination of innovative, proactive and risk-seeking behaviour that crosses national borders and is intended to create value in organizations". By research a lot of articles, which point out that Europe has only recently become interested in the growth of entrepreneurship. Risk taking in general is discouraged by most European cultures with business failure being considered a social disgrace. But in recent years, several changes in the social and political climate have conspired to change these traditional, security-conscious culture successful entrepreneurs, some of whom have become cultural heroes and break the stigma. This paper seeks to present an overview of the recent literature relating to "international entrepreneurship" which may be identified in the European Union. So the purpose of this research paper is to provide background information of international entrepreneurship in European Union, and how that information applies in the future research. ...read more.


2.6 SHAKER, Z. JAMES, H AND HUGH, O. (August, 2001) Fostering Entrepreneurship During international Expansion: Managing Key Challenges. European Management, 19(4), pp.359-369. This article identifies several challenges companies encounter as they attempt to promote entrepreneurship and it discusses ways executives can creatively address them. The article shows how managing these challenges can encourage organizational learning of new skills, thereby giving companies new competencies that allow them to profit from expanding their international operations. As internationalization continues to accelerate, companies need to invest heavily in learning and developing new core competencies in their foreign markets. In this article, entrepreneurship refers to a company's formal and informal activities aimed at increasing innovation and venturing. The author gives a new field to explain entrepreneurship, and some other authors (ZAHRA and GARVIS, 2000) also agrees this explanation, so this gives a new aspect in the future research. 2.7 ZOLTAN, J AND BERNARD, Y. (2001) Entrepreneurship, Globalization, And Public Policy. International Management, 7(3), pp.235-251. This paper examines the impact of governmental policies in influencing the path of internationalization of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The author focuses on the role of institutions mandated to assist internationalization. ...read more.


This casebook illustrate different kinds of cases from different regions include China, UK, Poland, Ireland, US, Australia. It make possible to compare the different points with different countries. 3.Conclusion This review paper examined the concept of international entrepreneurship in Europe that has been emerging across the USA, North Europe and Asian in recent years, providing an overview of the existing literature in this area. Literature on the internationalization of the firm has been divided into studies that focus on the decisions involved, often relating to entry mode choice and strategy, and those that focus on the process. The first section told readers what would talk about in this research paper; the second section is a literature review depend on the journal and books. Many reading articles state that today in Europe, more individuals are emerging in both academic circles and large companies who are looking for a challenge and are finding it in entrepreneurship. New government policies are making it easier to raise money for starting up businesses. All in all, by given the emerging global environment, entrepreneurs are no longer limited to domestic markets, and even locally oriented entrepreneurs must be attentive to competition from international players. ...read more.

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