• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Is there a trade-off between prosperity and violence? If so, what is it? If not why not?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Is there a trade-off between prosperity and violence? If so, what is it? If not why not? The best examples of the trade off between prosperity and violence are attributed in Bates to the early developers, whose' success story stands in contrast to the prospect of the late developers who's situation is fundamentally related to their historical relationship with the developed nations. In order to come to an understanding of the trade off between prosperity and violence it is therefore necessary to establish the terms of distinction between developed and underdeveloped countries. This paper will therefore establish the cause of the trade of between prosperity and violence in order to highlight its impediments. In doing so this paper will argue that the history of early developers is characterised in Bates by the interplay between prosperity and violence and their respective roles in inspiring the great transformation. It will be argued that the trade off between prosperity and violence passes through distinct stages which has implications for the prospects of late developers. From agrarian beginnings in which a fragile peace was established via the threat of privately wielded violence to the feudal period which sees monarchs engage in wars, the trade off between prosperity and violence is the outcome or solution of the exigencies of the time. There is then a stark contrast between the histories of the developed nations and the modern histories of the late developers. Following Bates, it will be argued that the trade off between prosperity and violence has not yet effectively taken place within the developing world. The impact of global economic forces coupled with the impact of the cold war has negatively impacted the late developers. According to Bates (2001), "development refers to the growth of per capita incomes and to the transformation of social and political systems" (pg. 20). Bates argues that development occurs when the trade-off between prosperity and violence is successful and underdevelopment persists so long and the trade-off is not made. ...read more.

Middle

54). But perhaps the more far-reaching implication of the growth of feudalism from the commercialisation of agriculture is the concentration of political power upon the dominant economic force (Bates, R, 2001, pg. 56). The unity of economic dominance and brute force privileges select kinship groups who contest the sources of wealth: "those that prevailed formed ruling lineages and provided kings" (Bates, R, 2001, pg.56). The success of the newly establishing monarchies was reliant on their ability to finance conquest. Methods used by ruling lineages to secure monies to fight wars amounted to a trade of some power for some more wealth. The genesis of what could properly be considered a state arises from what Bates considers to be mercantilist policies of the dominant ruling lineages (2001, pg. 56). On one hand wealth was ceased by force and blunt manipulation-the exploitation of the agrarian workforce, and the "confiscation of the wealth of their bankers, the estates of the church, and the possessions of their aristocrats" was played out and led to and accompanied the enforcing of economic dependency of subjects (Bates, R, 2001, pg. 56-57). But more importantly, the encroachment of monarchies into towns gave rise to the emergence of less coercive means of gaining wealth-from a wealth-redistributing tendency to a wealth-creating tendency. Because of the logistical difficulty in seizing and holding an urban centre, coupled with the mobility of capital monarchs sought to assist in wealth creation in towns. Monarchs sought to elicit growth in urban manufacturing by primitive import substitution-the establishment of tariffs on imported goods-and by cheapening the availability of raw materials and food stuffs by restricting their export and subjecting the domestic market to competition form abroad. But perhaps the most striking aspect of the transition to wealth promotion is the disjunction of the power from the hands of the monarch to the hands of private hands of the citizen. This 'trade-off' entails the exchange of direct control wealth producers in return for greater efficiency in organising local economies. ...read more.

Conclusion

Regimes were therefore unable to meet the conditions of their position-as the regimes could not pay off elites their positions were place under threat. According to Bates, "the end of the century was therefore marked not only by the spread of democracy in the developing world but by the spread of violence" (Bates, R, 2001, pg. 96). To conclude, it is interesting to note that neo-liberal development theory has been criticized for adopting a set of prescriptions which "are nothing less than the prerequisites for a capitalist economy" (Minogue, M, and Kuthari, U, 2002, pg. 180). This criticism is valid in the context of this paper insofar as after the 'trade-off' between prosperity and violence (the sacrifice of political power for economic prosperity and security) a prosperous and secure state find it rational to curb expenditure by 'rolling back'. Prior to the 'great transformation' however we see a situation in which it has proved necessary for the state to direct the economic fortunes of a country. This paper has argued then that the trade-off between prosperity and violence has been a characteristic feature present in the histories of all successful developers. The generation of wealth, if it is successful necessarily leads to circumstances in which it is prudent to adopt protective measures. Developed nations have a history in which the holders of wealth have protected their wealth, first privately then through political institutions which make up the state. The sometimes cruel trade-off means that the greater the prosperity the greater the potential peace but also the more requirement there is for the threat of force to be real. Thus the threat of war with ones competitors has been a powerful factor contributing to the development of western nation states. However, there is no doubt that the late developer's ability to undergo the 'great transformation' has been perverted by the post war political and economic environment. Insofar as the course of the late developers direction has diverted from the norm established by the early developers, the trade-off between prosperity and violence has not been accomplished. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level UK, European & Global Economics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level UK, European & Global Economics essays

  1. Free essay

    does uk housing market warrant government intervention

    While most unaffordable towns were in London and the South East, Scotland, the north of England and Wales were the parts of the UK with the most affordable towns. % UNAFFORDABLE HOMES FOR KEY WORKERS BY REGION (Proportion of towns in which average home too expensive)

  2. Where does the World Trade Organisation fit in the overall scheme of international public ...

    NGOs, international business and organised labour, acting in concert across a very wide range of public policies.8 Malloch Brown's prescriptions are mostly vague and pitched at a breathtakingly high level of generality. One gets the impression, for example, that all public goods are global.

  1. Given the fact that Third World countries are underdeveloped (or developing); the causes that ...

    According to Economic Development by Michael P. Todaro, developing countries are " beset by institutional , political, and economic rigidities, both domestic and international, and caught up in a dependence and dominance relationship with rich countries."1 The international dependence revolution involves three implications of separate views that as a hole serve the general dependency theorist's claim.

  2. In this report, we shall explore the reasons for the shift from multilateralism to ...

    Following China, ASEAN is estimated to increase its exports by 7.88%. As trade barriers are eliminated and income level is increased, imports of FTA member countries will be activated. Contrary to the case of exports, while FTA member countries' imports increase, non-member countries' scale of imports will decrease.

  1. This paper investigates an evidence to support the HOV model by carrying out a ...

    The assumptions of the HOV model are: (i) perfect competition in the goods, immobility of production factors between countries, but complete mobility of production factors between sectors within a country. (ii) identical input-output (technology) in all countries (iii) production functions shows constant returns to scale (iv) factor price equalization across countries (v)

  2. This investigation will try to test the level of external debt and measure its ...

    Definition and types of debt The acceleration of economic development in the majority of Latin-American countries, which started in the beginning of 1960, has been accompanied by a rising need of external resources, generally to cover a deficit in the current account.

  1. Why has GDP growth been so slow in Somalia?

    Piracy off the coast of Somalia is growing at an alarming rate62. It has disrupted international trade and provides funds that feed the vicious, ongoing war. With no government, isolated beaches and a population that is both desperate and used to war, Somalia is the perfect environment for piracy to flourish in.

  2. Islamic terrorism is a serious problem for the United States because of the threat ...

    Even though terrorism kills relatively few people, the random nature by which innocent civilian are killed evokes a deep fear and insecurity upon the population. This form of terrorism was successfully used to target tourism and damage Egypt's economy in 1997.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work