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Explain the main factors that have influenced recent trends in the demand for the railway service in the U.K.

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Introduction

Explain the main factors that have influenced recent trends in the demand of a mode of transport of your choice. Transport is a key factor in an economy. It is essential for an economy to function effectively and efficiently. We use different mode of transport in our every day lives such as bus, train, air etc. Moreover, we use some transport more regularly than the other depending on facilities, consumer needs and cost. E.g. we may prefer to use private motor car than a bus service because of the facilities and comfort it brings. There are other factors that affect the mode of transport such as time it takes to travel using a particular transport, the cost of using the transport, the distance we travel and flexibility. In this essay I would like concentrate on recent trends on the demand for railway service in the U.K. ...read more.

Middle

Many private railway companies were given huge amount of subsidies to keep the ticket cost down so that it encourages consumers to use the train services. The government also provided revenue to rail operating companies to support capital projects such as upgrading the west coast main line. One of government's aims is to get people out of private cars and encourage them to use public service. This reduces road congestion and helps the environment. The diagram above shows the affect of running a rail service without subsidies and with subsides. Without subsides the rail ticket price will be high and number of ticket bought will be low. On the diagram the point "P" shows that the high price of the rail ticket without subsidy and the point Q shows that the number of ticket bought is low. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore, this type of price discrimination encourages people use the railway service more. Transport allows people to do many jobs swiftly. However the situation is changing as traffic growth on all type of road in England is increasing gradually. For this reason the government would like to encourage people to use service such as train by privatising them in 1994. By doing this the government was successful in getting more people to use train services. The improved quality of the service encouraged more people to use them. The government has targets such as relieving congestion in heavily populated areas and to invest on sustainable existing transport. For this reasons it has encouraged railway projects by funding them. Besides, the government subsidises the railway companies so that everyone can afford the tickets and take advantage of them. ?? ?? ?? ?? Vivek Santhirababu Page 1 of 2 ...read more.

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Response to the question

This essay responds averagely to the task, engaging with why railway demand has increased. There is discussion of privatisation allowing prices to become cheaper, but there is little exploration of growing population, increased transport links, substitutions becoming less favourable, etc. ...

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Response to the question

This essay responds averagely to the task, engaging with why railway demand has increased. There is discussion of privatisation allowing prices to become cheaper, but there is little exploration of growing population, increased transport links, substitutions becoming less favourable, etc. The question asks for the main factors, and I don't feel as if this essay addresses enough of them. It goes off on a tangent and discusses how a subsidy affects the microeconomic situations. It's vital you stay focused on the task, else you'll end up missing easy marks.

Level of analysis

The analysis here is sound. There is a clear awareness of privatisation making railway cheaper, however this mechanism is not explained. If I were answering this question, I would be discussing economies of scale and incentives making the firm more efficient, allowing them high profits whilst still offering lower prices for the masses. A discussion of price discrimination with diagrams would've been relevant here. As mentioned above, there is an exploration of the effect of a subsidy. This isn't relevant to the question, but I would note the the analysis good. Simple sentences such as "The point P1 shows the low price ticket after subsidising and therefore increased number of ticket bought from Q to Q1" show the ability to interpret and understand the diagram. I would've liked another sentence saying "A subsidy allows the firm to increase the supply for every given price, thus shifting supply right from S to S1".

Quality of writing

This essay has a good structure. The introduction gives an insight into why transport is important, whilst focusing attention to why people choose different modes. I think this could've been explored further in the essay, looking closely at why tastes have turned from cars to trains, etc. Paragraphs are used well, and there is little repetition here. I just feel a larger breadth of points needed to be discussed to reach the top marks. The style here is good, but I think technical terms should be used more regularly to show you are in control of the argument. Examiners love to see these concepts used correctly as it shows an in-depth understanding. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are fine, but there were a few slips such as "affects" instead of "effects".


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