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The world trading organization.

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1. THE WORLD TRADING ORGANIZATION The world trading organization (WTO) being working since 1947. The general agreement under tariffs and trade (GAUTT), started the activity from January, 1, 1995. WTO is called to adjust trading - political attitudes(relations) of participants of the Organization on the basis of package of the Uruguayan round of multilateral trading negotiations (1986-1994). These documents are legal basis of modern international trade. The agreement on establishment of WTO provides creation of a permanent forum of countries - members for settlement of the problems influencing their multilateral trade relations, and the control of realization of agreements and arrangements of the Uruguayan round. WTO functions in many respects the same as and GAUTT, but thus carries out the control of wider spectrum of trading agreements (including trade in services and questions of trading aspects of rights of the intellectual property) and has much more powers in connection with perfection of procedures of acceptance of decisions and their performance by members of the organization. An integral part of WTO is the unique mechanism of the sanction of trading disputes. Since 1947 discussion of global problems of liberalization and prospects of development of world trade passes within the framework of multilateral trading negotiations (MTN) under aegis GAUTT. By 2002 it is carried out(spent) 8 roundes MTN, including Uruguayan, and the ninth already began. The main problem(task) of this influential international economic organization is liberalization of world trade. Basic principles and rules GAUTT/WTO are: trade without discrimination, i.e. ...read more.


of WTO which should present the offers on realization of a new round. Within the framework of the appropriate Committees of WTO discussion only problematics of " the built - in summons " in the spring 2000 began. In 2000-2001??. passed also consideration of offers of countries - members on a format of the further evolution of these Agreements and other fields of activity of the organization. In view of remaining contradictions between various groups of the states and separate countries - members of WTO, work was under construction on search of conciliatory proposals. November, 9-13, 2001 in Doha (Qatar) was held the fourth Ministerial conference on which in a result the decision to start(begin) negotiations on a number(line) of the directions concerning " the built - in summons " was accepted, industrial tariffs, corrected WTO (grants, an antidumping, regional trading agreements), arrangements on settlement of trading disputes. Within the framework of the appropriate committees work on negotiations in other areas (trade and ecology etc.) is conducted. From February 2002?. began work Committee on the trading negotiations, including number(line) of the specialized bodies which is the coordinator of negotiating process of new round MTN. Now there is a subject discussion at a multilateral level of offers of countries - members of WTO under the agenda of a new round, and on trade in services bilateral negotiations begin.. At the fifth Ministerial conference (September, 2003. Mexico) will be brought intermediate results MTN and the format of their continuation is determined. ...read more.


In turn joining country, as a rule, receives rights which all other members of WTO have also that will mean practically the termination(discontinuance) of its(her) discrimination on foreign markets. (Though, for example, China could not achieve reception of all these rights in full). In case of illegal actions on the part of any member of the organization, any country can address with the appropriate complaint in Body under resolution of disputes which decisions are obligatory for unconditional execution(performance) at a national level each participant of WTO. According to the established procedure results of all carried out(spent) negotiations on liberalization of access on the markets and conditions of connection are made out by the following official documents: - The report of Working group where all package of rights and obligations which the country - competitor will take up on results of negotiations is stated; - The list of obligations on tariff concessions in the field of the goods and on a level of support of an agriculture; One of the main conditions of connection of the new countries to WTO is reduction of their national legislation and practice of regulation of foreign trade activities conformity with positions of a package of agreements of the Uruguayan round. At the final stage of connection there is a ratification by a national legislature of the country - competitor of all package of the documents coordinated within the framework of Working Group and authorized by General advice(council). After that the specified obligations become a part of documents of WTO and the national legislation, and itself the country - candidate receives the status of a member of WTO. ...read more.

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