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What are the obstacles and opportunities faced by either South Africa or Mozambique in their attempts to improve economic and political development?

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Introduction

DIANE SMITH FLEXIBLE DEGREE STUDENT NO 200000583 MODULE CODE POLI 905 LECTURER: IAN RASMUSSEN ESSAY TITLE What are the obstacles and opportunities faced by either South Africa or Mozambique in their attempts to improve economic and political development? Introduction In this essay I will attempt to look at the obstacles and opportunities faced by Mozambique in their attempts to improve economic and political development. I will look at the reasons why Portugal found it hard to decolonise her possessions because she could not neocolonise them. I will look at how Mozambique's problems were exacerbated by civil aid programmes and the conflicts between itself and other African countries. Mozambique: advantages and disadvantages Mozambique is situated at the South Eastern side of Africa. It is the nearest port for Malawi, Zimbabwe and the northern part of South Africa. It has some crucial resources geographically which give it an advantage over other African states. It is also strategically important as it provides easy access to other countries. It is roughly three times the size of England. One of the biggest disadvantages that Mozambique has is that there is no navy or air force to protect its coastal waters that are open to exploitation and capitalisation as there is no marketing control. The only way that this exploitation and capitalisation can be controlled is by the development of a better infrastructure of rail and roads. ...read more.

Middle

The projects often also caused environmental damage. The debt was only increased by this because of the money being misspent on unsuccessful programs, and the loss of export income. The inability to earn wages led to further poverty and strife in the urban communities. The main priorities in Mozambique are ones of sanitation, clean water, and vaccination. This has been shown to work in other countries like Kenya. There is lots of power over business from multinational organisations such as Mitsubishi and Enron. The question one needs to ask is who is it that benefits? Is it the people of the country or the business men in the city? What is the motivation behind people and countries who offer aid? Is it just another opportunity to exploit and profit from the rich natural resources that the country has to offer? Conclusion Mozambique is still relatively poor as a country in economic terms, although it is rich in others such as copious fishing waters that are underused in the global markets due to poor infrastructure. Mozambique was lead by the Portuguese government who were ill equipped to compete adequately on an international and global level. When globalisation took off in other African states, Mozambique was left behind, and never had an industrial revolution. This meant that although there was plenty of opportunity to further develop the country and equip it with the ability to trade on global levels, other capitalist states and markets were far more advanced, with a good infrastructure that opened them up to the markets. ...read more.

Conclusion

This policy would need to make it clear that investment decisions were to be made on economic grounds, rather than on politically motivated grounds. This plainly put any emphasis of blame, due to previous policy failure, about the economic crisis in Mozambique and esoecially in Mozambique, was laregely a creation of the individual african states themselves. This removed any liability and responsibility on the west, protecting its own interests again. If there is no benefit to themselves there is a reluctance to become involved in the countries problems. The retention of these types of attitudes mean that Mozambiques problems are unlikely to see any significant change in the near future. There will be change but only very slowly as discussed earlier. In my beleif I think the Mozambique people have always been given a rough deal, and cannot see that it will change quickly, as the people who hold the power and capability to enforce change are fearful that they may lose some independance, i.e. the middle class bourguoise. The fear of a lack of control for those in the city, means that the poorer members of society are repressed continually, and because they do not have the capability or knowledge to do something about it, it is unlikely that it will change. I agree that the support given through international aid is necessary, but it should be helping the peasant farmers and the poorer members of society, not just the big boys in the city. This only extenuates the gap between the haves and have nots. ...read more.

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