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"What do sociologists mean by the term 'Globalisation' and how have they tried to explain it?"

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Introduction

"What do sociologists mean by the term 'Globalisation' and how have they tried to explain it?" Many historians and sociologists have identified a transformation in the economic processes of the world and society in recent times. There has been an extensive increase in developments in technology and the economy as a whole in the twentieth century. Globalisation has been recognised as a new age in which the world has developed into what Giddens identifies to be a "single social system" (Anthony Giddens: 1993 'Sociology' pg 528), due to the rise of interdependence of various countries on one another, therefore affecting practically everyone within society. In this essay I will give a detailed explanation of what sociologists mean by the term 'globalisation' and how they have tried to explain it. Globalisation can be construed in many ways. Many sociologists describe it as an era in which national sovereignty is disappearing as a result of a technological revolution, causing space and time to be virtually irrelevant. It is an economic revolution, which Roland Robertson refers to in his book 'Globalisation' 1992 pg 8, as "the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole". ...read more.

Middle

Malcolm Waters identifies a range of consequences of political globalisation. European institutions are being regarded as more important than the nation state. The decentralisation of authority is causing the power of the state to weaken. Waters argues this has had the following effects on the nation state. It readdresses significant political preferences. "It delegitimises the nation-state as a problem-solver" and it leads to new organisations being set up to which some aspects of state sovereignty are surrendered. (Waters, 'Globalization, 1995, pg. 111) I will now be exploring cultural globalisation. This type of globalisation may be the most influential so far. With more and more people from diverse backgrounds and ethnic origins settling around the world, various cultures and trends are becoming popular. Examples include such as Indian culture being very accepted within Great Britain. Indian cuisines have been set up in nearly every high street. The wearing of the bindis became a fashion accessory especially around the late 1990's. Indian music has also found a place within the United Kingdom, with the latest Bhangra Muffin kicking in and obtaining a significant share of the music market. There are also Chinese, Arabic, Jamaican and many more cultural restaurants and services establishing within the United Kingdom and other countries across the globe. ...read more.

Conclusion

502). Since the 1960s global capitalism has been expanding dramatically, and the economy seems to be metaphorically reflexive as well, which means globalisation is therefore not the same as localisation because it is spreading from the localities the same capitalism. However the local effects produced are different. What globalisation mainly reflects is the growing economic and cultural interdependency of world society. When considering the essay question some sociologists seem to hold negative views regarding globalisation, whereas others have optimistic views. Giddens for example considers globalisation to have the potential to both "empower and unite citizens", but then also the potential to "divide" them (Marsh, 'Making Sense of Society', 2000 pg 487). What we can understand on the whole, is what sociologists mean by the term globalisation is that it is a profound, dynamic process which is affecting the world immensely. It seems from what I have examined so far about globalisation that there may come a time eventually, when a world government comes into existence, where international inequalities will always remain and where social conflict will always be active. This is because the policies that drive the globalisation process are largely focussed on the needs of business. Globalisation is a continuing process which needs to be managed wisely. It is a crucial development which has and always will cause significant social changes within society and the world as a whole. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 Huma Ayub ...read more.

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