• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why did the embassies of Lord McCartney in 1793 and Lord Amherst in 1816 fail?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

McCartney's mission, followed by Amherst's mission, could be considered as one of the primitive contact held between Britain and China. Despite their effort, McCartney and Amherst's missions both failed and caused an enormous effect on British-Chinese relationship for a long period of time. Why did the embassies of Lord McCartney in 1793 and Lord Amherst in 1816 fail? It is mostly due to the persistent view that the Chinese government was not disinclined toward foreign intercourse. British wished to achieve several objectives which were mainly about the trade and the diplomatic representation. So McCartney had visited China and tried to open discussion with Ho-shen. But China regarded McCartney's visit to Peking as a celebration of the emperor's birthday. Even though the mission was warmly welcomed by the governor-general, a flag bearing the characters of "Tributary Envoy from England" was placed on their boat. The Ch'ing court considered diplomatic negotiations completely out of order. ...read more.

Middle

They rather thought the opening of the trade would bring profit only to the partner. They also knew that building up a relation with Britain would only collapse the established practice of China. So China accepted McCartney with the utmost politeness, treated with utmost hospitality, watched with utmost vigilance and dismissed with the utmost civility but never let them speak a word about the diplomatic issues. Both McCartney and Amherst had done their best but failed. However, we cannot miss the fact that there was a lack of understanding of the Chinese culture in Britain. This also has contributed to the British failure. Kowtow was one of the most significant cultures they had to face. Kowtow is to kneel three times and lie down nine times before the Emperor to show him respect. Both McCartney and Amherst did not mind doing so, but they considered this action as an insult to King George ? ...read more.

Conclusion

As a result, English embassy was expelled and its "tribute" was rejected. These factors could be the evidences of how British were unaware of Chinese cultures and China itself. "When in Rome, do as the Romans do" - this spirit was missing from the Britain. If British knew to esteem China a little more, if they at least knew how important dynasty is for China, there could have been a chance of negotiation. But their mission was not a complete failure. They succeeded in collecting valuable information. China's scientific and medical knowledge was actually in a low status, their army quality is declining, the poverty was prominent in the society and moreover the dynasty was in danger of collapsing. From this information, the British's next step was to change their situation by using military forces. This soon led to the breakdown of the Canton system and it was the beginning of the long-decayed clash between Britain and China and also the beginning of the British's revenge. Therefore, McCartney and Amherst's failure converted into a big success later in the future. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level UK, European & Global Economics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level UK, European & Global Economics essays

  1. CHINA: To What Extent Did The Three Missions (Macartney, Amherst and Naipier) Fail?

    Therefore, it can be seen very clearly that none of the British goals were achieved in this instance. However, while the mission did not achieve its goals, it cannot be said to have been a failure to the full extent.

  2. Comprehensive Anatomy of China

    In 1948 the prevailing Chinese Communist Party (CCP) defeated the then ruling Nationalist Party. The current government was established in October 1949 after CCP chairman Mao Zedong declared the formation of the People's Republic of China (PRC). This effectively brought an end to Western imperialist involvement in China because the

  1. Peoples' republic of China

    Profits accruing to a foreign joint venturer may be repatriated (Crane, 1990, p. 63). If profits are repatriated, however, they will be subject to an additional (over and above any Chinese income tax previously imposed) 10 percent tax. Chinese income taxes on joint ventures are in the 30-to-35 percent range.

  2. Outline the issues under discussion at Cancún - Why did talks fail?

    Consumers, tax payers and farmers in LEDCs all loose out. The tariffs between developing and developed countries is almost five times greater than the tariffs between developed countries, thus showing how the developed countries are in no position to preach free-market principles as they have tried to do in the past.

  1. Emergency Economic Recovery Program From the United Nations International Report, Vol. I, no. A1

    Strategies and Costs The EERP proposes an environmental program with two components. First, soil conservation and agro- forestry activities would be initiated in critical areas and near large cities. These activities would reduce erosion, retain water, and enhance farmers' productivity using well tested, effective technologies and NGO/PVO participation.

  2. "Strategies Applied in Organization in Big Chinese Society"

    By means of globalization, the use of modern technologies around the globe has elevated highly, but disproportionately. Technological improvement, technological implementation, and technological exclusion are very needed for the organization to be at the competitive edge. Technology is not just a piece of equipment but it means the entire body of methods and materials used for achieving objectives.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work