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Appropriate Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Education

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Introduction

Appropriate Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Education Table of Contents LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ............................................................ 3 ABSTRACT ............................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 5 BACKGROUND ......................................................................... 5 PURPOSE ................................................................................ 7 SCOPE ..................................................................................... 7 DISCUSSION ............................................................................ 8 History of stimulant drug use................................................ 8 Overprescribing ............................................................... 8 Chemical treatments .......................................................... 9 ADHD related issues ......................................................... 10 Educating and educators ..................................................... 11 CONCULSION .......................................................................... 12 WORKS CITED ......................................................................... 14, 15 List of Illustrations Figure 1: PET scan image ................................................................ 6 Figure 2: Targeting the Brain ............................................................ 9 Figure 3: Teachers Quote .................................................. 11 Figure 4: Personal Photo ................................................... 13 Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder is most commonly known as ADHD and affects millions of children. It was originally thought to be a form of "minimal brain dysfunction." However, this label has since been mislaid and ADHD has gained a classification as unique as the disorder. Within the classification of ADHD comes a set of related behaviors; such as hyperactivity, restlessness, impulsivity, aggression, distractibility, and short attention span. Treatment options vary among patients, with many doctors preferring to treat with medication. Because of this trend, over prescribing is commonplace. ADHD is a disorder that is of great interest for me. My son is one of millions affected by its symptoms. ...read more.

Middle

In 1970 it was estimated that 150,000 children were taking stimulant medication in the United States. During the 1970's public outrage over stimulants began to grow. This reaction stemmed from an article in the popular press charging that 10 percent of the children in the Omaha school district in Nebraska were being medicated with Ritalin (Maynard). Though this article was ultimately shown to contain inaccuracies, it spurred other reports of "mind control" and led to congressional hearings. Problems with over prescription began in 1971 when the DEA listed stimulants as Schedule II controlled drugs, partly in response to an epidemic of methylphenidate abuse occurring in Sweden and the illegal use of stimulants in the United States. In 1988, it was predicted that by the early 1990s over one million US children would be receiving stimulants for treatment of ADHD. In fact, the prediction underestimated the growth in use of stimulants as nearly three million children now use stimulants to cope with ADHD and the number is rising (Read 14). According to studies conducted in 1994, 3 to 5% of school-aged children are expected to have ADHD and presumably a smaller percent would be expected to be receiving stimulant medication because stimulant medication is not effective in approximately 25% of children with ADHD. ...read more.

Conclusion

As in any situation involving children, it is important for parents, teachers, and students alike to realize that a child with ADHD will need special attention and consideration. "Each student with ADHD presents a unique set of characteristics. The strategies and accommodations that are imperative or the academic success of one student with ADHD may be completely different for another. Therefore, teachers will need to pick and choose from a variety of strategies and accommodations to meet the individual needs of their particular student (Yehle 13)." CONCLUSION Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a frustrating disorder for all involved. In today's times, research has shown, there is a light at the end of the tunnel. The key to the disorder is identifying and diagnosing the problem. The next step is to meet the needs of the individual student with a program that is carefully planned and implemented to assure the student's best development and appropriate education. As more research is conducted, it is becoming clearer that the symptoms of this disorder are not simply the result of biological factors, but rather appear to be due to the interaction of the student's biological characteristics and environmental stimuli. This is why the use of chemical stimulants has been questioned. "Many contributing cultural feelings about the use of drugs to over come a person's problems contribute to feelings of inadequacy in medicated children." (Diller, Lawrence H. ...read more.

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